Evolution means a process of change or transformation, and is commonly used to refer to biological, genetic or organic evolution, the changes in populations of organisms over generations, the processes by which such changes occur, and theories regarding them. Offspring differ from their parents in various ways.
- Quotes alphabetized by author or source:
- The world has arisen in some way or another. How it originated is the great question, and Darwin's theory, like all other attempts to explain the origin of life, is thus far merely conjectural. I believe he has not even made the best conjecture possible in the present state of our knowledge.
- Louis Agassiz, Evolution and Permanence of Type (Atlantic Monthly, January 1874)
- The stream of tendency in which all things seek to fulfil the law of their being.
- Matthew Arnold; used also by Emerson; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- There are many aspects of the universe that still cannot be explained satisfactorily by science; but ignorance only implies ignorance that may someday be conquered. To surrender to ignorance and call it God has always been premature, and it remains premature today.
- Observe constantly that all things take place by change, and accustom thyself to consider that the nature of the Universe loves nothing so much as to change the things which are, and to make new things like them.
- Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, Chapter IV. 36; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- The keystone argument of Signature of the Cell [by Stephen C. Meyer] is that chance, by itself, cannot account for the genetic information found in the genomes of organisms. I agree. And so does every evolutionary scientist.
- Francisco Ayala, BioLogos blog post "On Reading the Cell's Signature" 7 January 2010
- Molecular evolution is not based on scientific authority. . . . There are assertions that such evolution occurred, but absolutely none are supported by pertinent experiments or calculations. Since no one knows molecular evolution by direct experience, and since there is no authority on which to base claims of knowledge, it can truly be said that . . . the assertion of Darwinian molecular evolution is merely bluster.
- Michael Behe, Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution (1996)
- Evolution no longer looks like a random process to me.
- Michael Behe, Cleveland Plain Dealer, "Evolution of a clash", 20 August 2005
- [While research] … has revealed unexpected, stunning complexity, no progress at all has been made in understanding how that complexity could evolve by unintelligent processes.
- The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong, nor does food come to the wise or wealth to the brilliant or favor to the learned; but time and chance happen to them all.
- Bible, Ecclesiastes 9:10-12
- The evolutionary vision is agnostic in regard to systems in the universe of greater complexity than those of which human beings have clear knowledge. It recognizes aesthetic, moral, and religious ideas and experiences as a species, in this case of mental structures or of images, which clearly interacts with other species in the world's great ecosystem.
- Kenneth Boulding, Ecodynamics: A New Theory Of Societal Evolution (1978)
- The rise of every man he loved to trace,
Up to the very pod O!
And, in baboons, our parent race
Was found by old Monboddo.
Their A, B, C, he made them speak,
And learn their qui, quæ, quod, O!
Till Hebrew, Latin, Welsh, and Greek
They knew as well's Monboddo!
- Ballad in Blackwood's Magazine referring to the originator of the monkey theory, James Burnett (Lord Monboddo); Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- A fire-mist and a planet,
A crystal and a cell,
A jellyfish and a saurian,
And caves where the cavemen dwell;
Then a sense of law and beauty,
And a face turned from the clod—
Some call it Evolution,
And others call it God.
- W. H. Carruth, Each in his Own Tongue; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- There was an ape in the days that were earlier,
Centuries passed and his hair became curlier;
Centuries more gave a thumb to his wrist—
Then he was a MAN and a Positivist.
- Mortimer Collins, The British Birds, Stanza 5; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Anthropological, biological, and genetic evidence all put the origin of modern humans at between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, probably in Africa. There is also much data that show an outburst of cultural behavior occurring around 50,000-40,000 years ago in Europe. That's when archaeologists date the oldest evidence of burial ceremonies, body ornaments, and cave paintings.
- William J. Cromie, "Facing up to modern man", Harvard University Gazette (7 March 2002)
- The cosmology of scientific materialism … considers the cosmos an absurd accident, and life within it to be no more than another accident.
- Till o'er the wreck, emerging from the storm,
Immortal NATURE lifts her changeful form:
Mounts from her funeral pyre on wings of flame,
And soars and shines, another and the same.
- Erasmus Darwin, Botanic Garden, Part I, Canto IV, line 389; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Authors of the highest eminence seem to be fully satisfied with the view that each species has been independently created. To my mind it accords better with what we know of the laws impressed on matter by the Creator, that the production and extinction of the past and present inhabitants of the world should have been due to secondary causes, like those determining the birth and death of the individual. When I view all beings not as special creations, but as the lineal descendants of some few beings which lived long before the first bed of the Silurian system was deposited, they seem to me to become ennobled.
- Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species (1859)
- I have called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term of Natural Selection.
- Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species (1859), Chapter III
- The expression often used by Mr. Herbert Spencer of the Survival of the Fittest is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient.
- Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species (1859), Chapter III
- Mere chance … alone would never account for so habitual and large an amount of difference as that between varieties of the same species and species of the same genus.
- This belief, that Darwinian evolution is "random", is not merely false. It is the exact opposite of the truth. Chance is a minor ingredient in the Darwinian recipe, but the most important ingredient is cumulative selection which is quintessentially non-random.
- Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker (1986) chapter 3, p. 49
- Natural selection, the blind, unconscious, automatic process which Darwin discovered … has no purpose in mind. … It does not plan for the future. It has no vision, no foresight, no sight at all. If it can be said to play the role of watchmaker in nature, it is the blind watchmaker.
- Richard Dawkins, The Blind Watchmaker (1986) p. 5
- In any developing science there are disagreements. But scientists — and here is what separates real scientists from the pseudoscientists of the school of intelligent design — always know what evidence it would take to change their minds. One thing all real scientists agree upon is the fact of evolution itself. It is a fact that we are cousins of gorillas, kangaroos, starfish, and bacteria. Evolution is as much a fact as the heat of the sun. It is not a theory, and for pity’s sake, let’s stop confusing the philosophically naive by calling it so. Evolution is a fact.
- There can be no question that Darwin had nothing like sufficient evidence to establish his theory of evolution. … Darwin’s model of evolution … , being basically a theory of historical reconstruction, … is impossible to verify by experiment or direct observation as is normal in science … Moreover, the theory of evolution deals with a series of unique events, the origin of life, the origin of intelligence and so on. Unique events are unrepeatable and cannot be subjected to any sort of experimental investigation. … His general theory, that all life on earth had originated and evolved by a gradual successive accumulation of fortuitous mutations, is still, as it was in Darwin’s time, a highly speculative hypothesis entirely without direct factual support and very far from that self-evident axiom some of its more aggressive advocates would have us believe. … The evolutionary paradigm … is more like a principle of medieval astrology than a serious twentieth century scientific theory. … One might have expected that a theory of such cardinal importance, a theory that literally changed the world, would have been something more than metaphysics, something more than a myth.
- Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1986) p. 69, 75, 77, 306, 358
- (If it were true that "a theory of historical reconstruction … is impossible to verify", then this truth would invalidate not only evolution, but also all of forensic science.)
- (It took Darwin twenty-one years (from 1838 to 1859) to develop the core of the theory of evolution, and the theory keeps developing even to the present day. No one considers it "self-evident".)
- God is an unnecessary hypothesis for explaining the natural world. But … this is not something that needs to be ascribed to God anyway, so it hardly implies that evolution and religion are incompatible, any more than showing that God is not needed to explain plumbing makes plumbing incompatible with religion.
- Said the little Eohippus,
"I am going to be a horse,
And on my middle fingernails
To run my earthly course!
* * *
I'm going to have a flowing tail!
I'm going to have a mane!
I'm going to stand fourteen hands high
On the Psychozoic plain!"
- Charlotte P. S. Gilman, "Similar Cases", line 13; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- The old "red in tooth and claw" view of the natural economy has to be updated. We need a new metaphor for the forest, one that helps us visualize plants both sharing and competing. … Evolution's engine is fired by genetic self-interest, but this manifests itself in cooperative action as well as solo selfishness. The natural economy has as many trade unions as robber barons, as much solidarity as individualistic entrepreneurship.
- David George Haskell, The Forest Unseen: A Year's Watch in Nature, "December 3rd — Litter," (2012), p. 228-9
- A mighty stream of tendency.
- William Hazlitt, Essay, Why Distant Objects Please; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Or ever the knightly years were gone
With the old world to the grave,
I was a king in Babylon
And you were a Christian Slave.
- W. F. Henley, Echoes, XXXVII; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Children, behold the Chimpanzee;
He sits on the ancestral tree
From which we sprang in ages gone.
I'm glad we sprang: had we held on,
We might, for aught that I can say,
Be horrid Chimpanzees to-day.
- Oliver Herford, The Chimpanzee; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- These odds [50,000,000,000,000,000,000 to 1] are roughly the same as you could give to the idea of just one of our body's proteins having evolved randomly, by chance. … A junkyard contains all the bits and pieces of a Boeing 747, dismembered and in disarray. A whirlwind happens to blow through the yard. What is the chance that after its passage a fully assembled 747, ready to fly, will be found standing there?
- Fred Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe, 1983, p. 12-19
- Darwinian evolution is most unlikely to get even one polypeptide [chain of essential life substances] right, let alone the thousands on which living cells depend for survival. This situation is well known to geneticists and yet nobody seems to blow the whistle decisively on the theory.
- The antagonism between science and religion, about which we hear so much, appears to me to be purely factitious — fabricated, on the one hand, by short-sighted religious people who confound a certain branch of science, theology, with religion; and, on the other, by equally short-sighted scientific people who forget that science takes for its province only that which is susceptible of clear intellectual comprehension; and that, outside the boundaries of that province, they must be content with imagination, with hope, and with ignorance.
- Asking general questions led to limited answers, asking limited questions turned out to provide more and more general answers.
- We seem to exist in a hazardous time,
Driftin' along here through space;
Nobody knows just when we begun,
Or how fur we've gone in the race.
- Ben King, Evolution; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- I wouldn’t get out of bed for 25,000 genes, and we don’t find form in the genome. We share most of our DNA with chimpanzees, but nowhere in the genome have we found what it is that makes us so different from chimps.
- James Le Fanu quoted in "For God’s sake, have Charles Darwin’s theories made any difference to our lives?" by Bryan Appleyard, The Sunday Times [of London] (11 January 2009)
- Why don't we see gradual transition in the sequences of fossils? According to Darwin, and the current neo-Darwinists, the fossil record has gaps in it because of the haphazard way in which fossilization occurs — it is bound to be an imperfect record of the history of life. But is it? Is the jerky and abrupt nature of the record really just due to 'gaps', or does it reflect the way evolution actually happened? There is a strong feeling among leading palaeontologists that the punctuated history shown by fossils reflects the way life has evolved — in leaps and bounds rather than in gradual transition. There is also a growing sense that there is much more to understanding 'macroevolution' — the large-scale picture one gets from the fossils — than the simple idea of natural selection can alone explain.
- Brian Leith, The Descent of Darwin: A Handbook of Doubts about Darwinism, (Collins: London, 1982) p. 23.
- Ever since language allowed human cultural evolution to impinge upon age-old processes of biological evolution, humankind has been in a position to upset older balances of nature in quite the same fashion as disease upsets the natural balance within a host's body. Time and again, a temporary approach to stabilization of new relationships occurred as natural limits to the ravages of humankind upon other life forms manifested themselves. Yet, sooner or later, and always within a span of time that remained miniscule in comparison with the standards of biological evolution, humanity discovered new techniques allowing fresh exploitation of hitherto inaccessible forms of life.
- Another curious aspect of the theory of evolution is that everybody thinks he understands it. I mean philosophers, social scientists, and so on. While in fact very few people understand it, actually, as it stands, even as it stood when Darwin expressed it, and even less as we now may be able to understand it in biology.
- Jacques Monod, On the Molecular Theory of Evolution (1974,) reprinted in Mark Ridley (editor) Evolution (1997) p. 389
- Pouter, tumbler, and fantail are from the same source;
The racer and hack may be traced to one Horse;
So men were developed from monkeys of course,
Which nobody can deny.
- Charles Neaves, The Origin of Species; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- We conclude — unexpectedly — that there is little evidence for the neo-Darwinian view: its theoretical foundations and the experimental evidence supporting it are weak, and there is no doubt that mutations of large effect are sometimes important in adaptation. We hasten to add, however, that we are not "macromutationists" who believe that adaptations are nearly always based on major genes. The neo-Darwinian view could well be correct. … We hope to encourage evolutionists to reexamine this neglected question and to provide evidence to settle it.
- H. Allen Orr [Center for Population Biology, University of California, Davis], & Jerry A. Coyne [Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago], "The Genetics of Adaptation: A Reassessment," The American Naturalist, Vol. 140, No. 5 (November 1992), p. 726
- (The first sentence is sometimes quoted in isolation by creationists to suggest incorrectly that "there is little evidence" for evolution. In fact, the "neo-Darwinian view" under question is the relative importance of many small changes versus a few large changes.)
- Development of an organism from a single germ cell into a multicellular entity is a self-organizing system from any point of view and I wish to contend that this self-organizing system is a subsystem of the self-organizing system called 'evolution'.
- Gordon Pask An Approach to Cybernetics (1961) p. 103-104
- The Church does not forbid that, in conformity with the present state of human sciences and sacred theology, research and discussions, on the part of men experienced in both fields, take place with regard to the doctrine of evolution, in as far as it inquires into the origin of the human body as coming from pre-existent and living matter.
- It can therefore be said that, from the viewpoint of the doctrine of the faith, there are no difficulties in explaining the origin of man in regard to the body, by means of the theory of evolution.
- New knowledge has led to the recognition of the theory of evolution as more than a hypothesis. It is indeed remarkable that this theory has been progressively accepted by researchers, following a series of discoveries in various fields of knowledge. The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favor of this theory.
- Currently, I see in Germany, but also in the United States, a somewhat fierce debate raging between so-called "creationism" and evolutionism, presented as though they were mutually exclusive alternatives: those who believe in the Creator would not be able to conceive of evolution, and those who instead support evolution would have to exclude God. This antithesis is absurd because, on the one hand, there are so many scientific proofs in favour of evolution which appears to be a reality we can see and which enriches our knowledge of life and being as such. But on the other, the doctrine of evolution does not answer every query, especially the great philosophical question: where does everything come from? And how did everything start which ultimately led to man?
- When we read in Genesis the account of Creation, we risk imagining that God was a magician, with such a magic wand as to be able to do everything. However, it was not like that. He created beings and left them to develop according to the internal laws that He gave each one, so that they would develop, and reach their fullness. He gave autonomy to the beings of the universe at the same time that He assured them of his continual presence, giving being to every reality. And thus creation went forward for centuries and centuries, millennia and millennia until it became what we know today, in fact because God is not a demiurge or a magician, but the Creator who gives being to all entities. The beginning of the world was not the work of chaos, which owes its origin to another, but it derives directly from a Supreme Principle who creates out of love. The Big-Bang, that is placed today at the origin of the world, does not contradict the divine intervention but exacts it. The evolution in nature is not opposed to the notion of Creation, because evolution presupposes the creation of beings that evolve.
- An organism’s adaptations to its environment, such as the dandelion seed’s parachute, are the result of evolution. Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. Because evolution is the fundamental organizing principle of biology, it is the core theme of this book.
- Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, et al. Campbell Biology (10th ed., 2014), Ch. 1. Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
- There is consensus among biologists that evolution is the core theme of biology. The evolutionary changes seen in the fossil record are observable facts. Furthermore, as we’ll describe, evolutionary mechanisms account for the unity and diversity of all species on Earth.
- Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, et al. Campbell Biology (10th ed., 2014), Ch. 1. Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry
- Look, you pinheads who attack me for this, you guys are just desperate. … How did that little amoeba get here, crawl out there? How'd it do it? Come on. … Okay, if we have existence, if we have life on earth, how come they don't have it on the other planets? Were we just lucky? Some meteor do this? Boom. Come on. You know, I see this stuff, it's desperate. As I've said many times, it takes more faith to not believe and to think that this was all luck - all this human body - the intricacies of it and everything else, all luck --- than it does to believe in a deity. There yah go.
- Germs and disease vectors are moving targets, and evolution is the reason for this. Evolution happens in hospitals... over the course of just a few months. What you don't know about evolution can kill you.
- Stanley A. Rice, Life of Earth: Portrait of a Beautiful, Middle-aged Stressed-out World (2011)
- The fact is that your plane originated because enough entities needed certain types of experience to warrant such a creation, and they set about forming it through the process of evolution.
- Jane Roberts, in The Early Sessions: Book 1, Session 31, Page 236
- Equidem æterna constitutione crediderim nexuque causarum latentium et multo ante destinatarum suum quemque ordinem immutabili lege percurrere.
- For my own part I am persuaded that everything advances by an unchangeable law through the eternal constitution and association of latent causes, which have been long before predestinated.
- Quintus Curtius Rufus, De Rebus Gestis Alexandri Magni, V, 11, 10; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- When things get bad enough, then something happens to correct the course. And it is for that reason that I speak of evolution as an error-making and error-correcting process. And if we can be ever so much better — ever so much slightly better — at error correcting than at error making, then we'll make it.
- I am interested in a phase that I think we are entering. I call it "teleological evolution," evolution with a purpose. The idea of evolution by design, designing the future, anticipating the future. I think of the need for more wisdom in the world, to deal with the knowledge that we have. At one time we had wisdom, but little knowledge. Now we have a great deal of knowledge, but do we have enough wisdom to deal with that knowledge?
- I judge things from an evolutionary perspective — "How does this serve and contribute to the process of our own evolution?" — rather than think of good and evil in moral terms. I see the triumph of good over evil as a manifestation of the error-correcting process of evolution.
- Jonas Salk, in Academy of Achievement interview, in San Diego, California (16 May 1991)
- I speak about universal evolution and teleological evolution, because I think the process of evolution reflects the wisdom of nature. I see the need for wisdom to become operative. We need to try to put all of these things together in what I call an evolutionary philosophy of our time.
- Jonas Salk, in Academy of Achievement interview, in San Diego, California (16 May 1991)
- I do not believe in evolution … and none of your professors believe in evolution. … Beliefs are opinions.
- If I did not think you a good tempered & truth loving man I should not tell you that... I have read your book [On the Origin of Species] with more pain than pleasure. Parts of it I admired greatly; parts I laughed at till my sides were almost sore; other parts I read with absolute sorrow; because I think them utterly false & grievously mischievous— You have deserted—after a start in that tram-road of all solid physical truth—the the true method of induction. … I have written in a hurry & in a spirit of brotherly love.
- This argument [that life is too improbable to have arisen by chance] comes up repeatedly: its latest manifestation is Hoyle's discussion of the likelihood of a wind blowing through a junkyard assembling a Boeing 707 [sic]. What is wrong with it? Essentially, it is that no biologist imagines that complex structures arise in a single step.
- John Maynard Smith, The Problems of Biology, 1986, p. 49
- Thus life by life and love by love
We passed through the cycles strange,
And breath by breath and death by death
We followed the chain of change.
- Langdon Smith, in "Evolution" (1895)
- When you were a tadpole and I was a fish, in the Palæozoic time
And side by side in the sluggish tide, we sprawled in the ooze and slime.
- Langdon Smith, A Toast to a Lady (Evolution); printed in The Scrap Book (April, 1906); Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Civilization is a progress from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity toward a definite, coherent heterogeneity.
- Herbert Spencer, First Principles, Chapter XVI. Par. 138; also Chapter XVII. Par. 145. He summaries the same: From a relatively diffused, uniform, and indeterminate arrangement to a relatively concentrated, multiform, and determinate arrangement; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called "natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life."
- Herbert Spencer, Principles of Biology, Indirect Equilibration; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Evolution is a change from an indefinite, incoherent, homogeneity to a definite, coherent, heterogeneity, through continuous differentiations and integrations.
- Out of the dusk a shadow,
Then a spark;
Out of the cloud a silence,
Then a lark;
Out of the heart a rapture,
Then a pain;
Out of the dead, cold ashes,
- John Banister Tabb, Evolution; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- The Lord let the house of a brute to the soul of a man,
And the man said, "Am I your debtor?"
And the Lord—"Not yet: but make it as clean as you can,
And then I will let you a better."
- Alfred Tennyson, By an Evolutionist; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Is there evil but on earth? Or pain in every peopled sphere?
Well, be grateful for the sounding watchword "Evolution" here.
- Alfred Tennyson, Locksley Hall Sixty Years After (1886), line 198; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Evolution ever climbing after some ideal good
And Reversion ever dragging Evolution in the mud.
- Alfred Tennyson, Locksley Hall Sixty Years After (1886), line 200; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- When I was a shepherd on the plains of Assyria.
- Henry David Thoreau; Reported in Hoyt's New Cyclopedia Of Practical Quotations (1922), p. 241-42.
- Organic evolution has its physical analogue in the universal law that the world tends, in all its parts and particles, to pass from certain less probable to certain more probable configurations or states. This is the second law of thermodynamics. It has been called the law of evolution of the world; and we call it, after Clausius, the Principle of Entropy, which is a literal translation of Evolution in Greek.
- Aristotle especially, both by speculation and observation... reached something like the modern idea of a succession of higher organizations from lower, and made the fruitful suggestion of "a perfecting principle" in Nature. With the coming in of Christian theology this tendency toward a yet truer theory of evolution was mainly stopped, but the old crude view remained...
- Just as the line of astronomical thinkers from Copernicus to Newton had destroyed the old astronomy, in which the earth was the center, and the Almighty sitting above the firmament the agent in moving the heavenly bodies about it with his own hands, so now a race of biological thinkers had destroyed the old idea of a Creator minutely contriving and fashioning all animals to suit the needs and purposes of man.
- Andrew Dickson White, A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom Ch.1, p. 49 (1896)
- Of course, like every other man of intelligence and education I do believe in organic evolution. It surprises me that at this late date such questions should be raised.
- Woodrow Wilson in a letter to Winterton C. Curtis (29 August 1922)
- And hear the mighty stream of tendency
Uttering, for elevation of our thought,
A clear sonorous voice, inaudible
To the vast multitude.
- William Wordsworth, The Excursion (1814), IX. 87