god of the moon in Mesopotamian mythology
Sīn (/ˈsiːn/) or Suen (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 EN.ZU, pronounced Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian religions of Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia. Sin was the patron deity of Ur.
Quotes about SīnEdit
- Say to Nanna, the firstborn son of Enlil, who loves prayers; repeat to the lord whose light spreads widely, the crown of heaven and earth, the great lord who loves to revive man; the father of the black-headed; the merciful king, who can untie and release; the merciful, compassionate god who listens to appeals:
You, who are perfect in lordship and wear the legitimate headdress, the one with gleaming appearance and noble countenance, holy form endowed lavishly with beauty: your greatness covers all countries. Your fearsome radiance overwhelms the holy sky. [...] You are indeed glorious from east to west. [...] You are the king of heaven and earth; it is you who decide their fate.
- He who loves the cows herds them into the pen.
[He] who loves the cows rounds up the cows.
- What he orders is faithfully executed. [...] Endowed with beauty in the E-kur, [...] among the great gods, the great and august lord.
- Lord whose abode is the mountains, father Nanna, [...] fixes the months and the new moon according to a cord, establishes the year. [...] Who puts all the lands in order, [...] who makes the Tigris and the Euphrates bring flowing water.
- Life for the multitude.
- [O]n earth, on the day of the disappearance of the moon, as you have completed the month, you summon the people, lord; and then in the netherworld you decree great judgments, you decide sublime verdicts. Enki and Ninki, the great lords, the great princes, the lords who determine fates, await your utterances, father.
- Prince, you place justice in every mouth, and make propriety resplendent. Daily you make hearts content, daily you determine fates appropriately. [...] You brighten the night sky in the broad firmament, and illuminate the darkness. The Anuna gods stand by with prayers and supplications at your rising. The sweet sight of your resplendent crescent, full of loveliness, brings joy to the great lady of the Ki-ur, mother Ninlil.
- King whom one cannot reach in the distant sky! Suen whom one cannot reach in the distant sky! King who loves justice, who hates evil! Suen who loves justice, who hates evil! Justice brings joy justly to your heart.
- Lord Nanna, bring it to me! In the dwelling of the shepherd, in the house of gleaned barley, my lord, I shall come to you in the storehouse! [...] Wonder of the Land, I shall come to you! My Nanna, your chant is sweet; it is the chant of my heart.
- Suen, the lord born to command.
- When a man comes forward as a witness, saying: "Let me tell you what I know about him", but does not know the relevant information, it is an abomination to Suen.
- My king, lord Acimbabbar, you are on your throne because of Enlil. Youthful Suen, lord Acimbabbar, you are on your throne because of Enlil.
A hymn to Nanna (Nanna E)Edit
- A hymn to Nanna (Nanna E), late 3rd millennium BCE, at The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature.
- Princely son, you are radiant as you come forth from the sacred bathing chamber, [...] the mountain of pure divine powers, the abzu shrine. [...] Bringing terrifying radiance from the marshes.
- Lifting your head in your goodness, greatness and majesty, majestically you extend your arm in order to determine destinies: great An has liberally bestowed on you your kingship over heaven and earth, and Enlil has perfected for you your great and noble filial status and lordship. Enlil has made majestic divinity manifest for you. Determining a destiny for your flowing waters, the majestic lower waters, Enki from within the sacred bathing chamber has placed the good earth, the good mother, at your feet. Enlil has sired you in majesty and lordship.
O Nanna, your crescent moon is called "the crescent moon of the seventh day". Enlil has made known throughout heaven and earth your name, which is a sacred name. Princely son, he has made your greatness manifest throughout heaven and earth. The majestic assembly has bestowed on you his status as Enlil. And from the place of the sanctuary Eridug, Enki has determined for you your lordship and majesty. King of heaven and earth who adorns heaven and earth, from the majestic abzu, the place of the sanctuary Eridug, he has declared your great lordship and your greatness.
O Nanna, he has chosen as your inheritance that you should surpass the Anuna gods. He has seated you in a sacred dwelling amid their pure divine powers which gladden the heart. He has grandly called the great gods to the food offerings. He has seated them for the ritual which fills the heart with majestic pleasure. He has presented to the gods their offerings which gladden the heart. He has seated you in a majestic place, a sacred place. O Nanna, he has seated you in a sacred place, a sacred dwelling.
- Enki purifies the dwelling for you, he makes the dwelling shine for you. He consecrates the heavens for you, he makes the earth shine for you. He makes the E-kic-nu-jal, the house of the cedar forests, tower straight upward for you. He makes your majestic residence into a sacred place for you, the foundation of heaven and earth.
He puts your ritual plans and majestic lustration rituals in order for you. [...] He makes the offering table resplendent for you in the sacred place. [...] He puts in order for you [...] your evening meals and morning meals. [...] He consecrates the lustration rituals and makes them shine for you. [...] Enki sets up for you the lustration rituals created in his abzu; Kusu establishes the lustration rituals created in their specific house -- the oven for oxen, sheep and bread beside the interior of the bathing chamber, those sacred lustration rituals beside the shrine!
Kusu purifies the oil for the house. It is placed in readiness [...] to ensure the sacred lustration rituals are not neglected, from the majestic marshes, the vast, sacred bathing chamber, this destiny emerges: the E-kic-nu-jal, with its majestic, sacred dais, perfects the great, majestic divine powers of heaven and earth. You bathe on the majestic banks by the sacred bathing chamber; you put mountain oil on your sacred body; O Nanna, you are placed upon your majestic dais -- wrapped in majestic linen, with raised head, shining horns and the pectoral of lordship!
With the majestic oil of the sacred body, the oil of lordship, oil from your great treasury, lord Ningublaga consecrates the hands on his lapis-lazuli quay, the majestic quay, the sacred quay. But from Eridug the stag of the abzu Enki purifies the oil for those hands. So that you should place sacred hands upon your offering table in the banqueting hall, the great place, your steward Kusu -- she who purifies hands and cleanses hands -- consecrates the hands. But from Eridug the stag of the abzu purifies the oil for those hands.
- Ningal is the majestic lady of the abzu shrine, of the majestic dais of Urim determining good and great destinies, and of the E-kic-nu-jal, the sacred and good dwelling. O, the sacred dwelling is the place of your ladyship for Nanna its king! The E-kic-nu-jal, the Agrun-kug, is your house of royalty! Nanna and Ningal bring joyfulness to the dwelling.
- O Suen, sage, majestic lord throughout heaven and earth, your crown is a majestic crown! O Acimbabbar who puts a terrifying radiance in heaven and earth! May his hands be consecrated for him. May they be consecrated like heaven for him, may they be made to shine like the earth for him. May they be as resplendent as the centre of heaven for him. May he lift his head with its crown of heaven and earth, the sacred crown. Suen, the sage lord, majestic throughout heaven and earth, who perfects the pure dais, Acimbabbar who wears the diadem and just crown with majestic, shining horns, lifts his head. Sacred oil, pure oil, cleansing oil!
- Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses: Nanna/Suen/Sin (god)
- Tamara M. Green, The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran. E.J. Brill, Leiden, 1992, 232 pages. ISBN 90-04-09513-6
- The Ur and Harran Latitudes, and Göbekli Tepe