ABC model of flower development edit

This topic uploaded to Wikiquote by Y-S.Ko on 3 October 2015.

ABC model of flower development is the model which endeavours to describe the biological basis of the process from the perspective of molecular and developmental genetics.

Quotes edit

  • The ABC model was popularized in a review in Nature published later in 1991 by the senior author and Enrico Coen, whose group had been making parallel new findings of similar homeotic mutants in snapdragon. [...] The ABC model is still widely used as a framework for understanding floral development today.
    • John L. Bowman, David R. Smyth and Elliot M. Meyerowitz, "The ABC model of flower development: then and now", Development (2012).
  • Two general conclusions can be reached from the comparison of flower development genes in two distantly related species. The first is that the basic mechanisms that define organ identity in developing flowers appear to be the same in both species. Genes exist whose mutants have similar phenotypes and similar interactions, and a single model can explain the action of these genes in both species.
    • Enrico S. Coen and Elliot M. Meyerowitz, "The war of the whorls: genetic interactions controlling flower development", Nature (1991).
  • Perhaps it was Goethe's breadth of mind, his desire to understand the underlying unity of nature without too much concern for experimental details, that led him to this remarkable insight. [...] His clear appreciation of the significance of abnormalities was certainly ahead of its time. Goethe's perspective only came to experimental fruition in the twentieth century, as mutations affecting development stated to be investigated in detail. The unraveling of the abc model is a good example of how the outlook underwent a change.
    • Enrico Coen, The Art of Genes: How Organisms Make Themselves (1999).
  • ...we may equally well say that a stamen is a contracted petal, as that a petal is a stamen in a state of expansion; or that a sepal is a contracted stem leaf approaching a certain stage of refinement, as that a stem leaf is a sepal expanded by the influx of cruder saps.
    • J.W. von Goethe (1790), Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklaren. Gotha, Ettlinger; paragraph 120.
  • Much of our fascination with the data of evo-devo arises from the sheer novelty of discovery in biological domains that had been previously and totally inaccessible. These empirical gems also illustrate, even in these early days, the integrating power of scientific conclusions to translate a previous descriptive chaos into explanatory sensibility. As an example, consider the name given to the truly elegant theory of floral genesis, as developed by students of Arabidopsis, the "Drosophila" of angiosperm biology—the ABC Model (Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991; Weigel and Meyerowitz, 1994; Jurgens, 1997; Busch, Bomblies, and Weigel, 1999; Wagner, Sablowski, and Meyerowitz, 1999).
    In this elegantly simple model (see Fig. 10-12), based on genes with homeotic effects upon serially repeated structures arranged in systematic order (with repetition in concentric whorls rather than linearly along a body axis), A genes operating alone determine the form of the outermost whorl of leaf-like sepals; A plus B genes regulate petals in the next whorl within; B plus C genes mark the male stamens, while C genes working alone determine the most interior female carpels. Moreover, leafy, a "higher control" gene previously recognized as an initiator or suppressor of floral growth and placement in general (Weigel and Nilsson, 1995), apparently also regulates the more specific operation of the ABC series. (Busch et al., 1999, demonstrate that a protein produced by leafy bonds directly to a particular DNA segment of a C gene responsible for the generation of carpels.)
    • Stephen Jay Gould, The Structure Of Evolutionary Theory (2002), Chapter 10: The Integration of Constraint and Adaptation (Structure and Function) in Ontogeny and Phylogeny: Historical Constraints and the Evolution of Development.

External links edit



Chick Island edit

This is about the island in Lake Erie.  For other uses of Chick, see Chick.

Chick Island is a small, flat, treeless island in Ontario located within Lake Erie.  It is one of the three "chickens" that surround Hen Island, the other two being Big Chicken Island and Little Chicken Island.

Quotes edit

  • Chick Island, August 7, 1901.—At normal water level this island is scarcely more than a reef, with no vegetation except the algæ, which cling to the rocks.  On the occasion our visit there was a dense mass of Polygonum growing to the height of three feet occupying the center of the exposed rock some twenty feet wide by two hundred long.  Here the Common Terns were nesting among these weeds and on the abundant drift wood which flanked the weeds on the south-westerly exposure.  About twenty Herring Gulls were perched on granite boulders which projected above the water, or stood at the edge of the water along the margin of the island.  Two Black Ducks made off from the island as we approached it.  Spotted Sandpipers were the only other birds noted here.  This rock is known as the Government charts as Big Chicken Reef or Shoal.  But at the time of our visit it clearly deserved a name which would be distinctive.  Since it was the smallest of the brood it might appropriately be considered "The Chick."
  • Chick lies about half a mile north of Big Chicken, and Little Chicken about a mile east of Chick.

External links edit

Wikipedia has an article about:
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for:

Category:Islands Category:Canada

Romeo + Juliet edit

{{Italic title}}

Romeo.  O Romeo!  Wherefore art thou Romeo?
~ Juliet
Sin from my lips?  Oh, trespass sweetly urged!  Give me my sin again.
~ Romeo
What's in a name?  That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet.
~ Juliet
Thus with a kiss I die.
~ Romeo

William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet is a 1996 American romantic drama film adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.  While it retains the original Shakespearean dialogue, this abridged modernisation depicts the Montagues and the Capulets as warring mafia empires (with legitimate business fronts) and swords are replaced with guns (with brand names such as "Dagger" and "Sword").  Some of the characters' names are also changed.  Lord and Lady Montague and Lord and Lady Capulet are given first names (as opposed to the Shakespeare original where their first names are never mentioned), Friar Lawrence becomes Father Lawrence, and Prince Escalus is renamed Captain Prince.  There is also no Friar John, who was in the original play.  Also, some characters were switched from one family to the other—in the original, Gregory and Sampson are Capulets, but in the film, they are Montagues.  (Abram, as Abra, and Petruchio, conversely, are shifted from the Montague to the Capulet family.)  In addition, a few plot details are shifted, most notably near the ending.

Screenplay by Craig Pearce and Baz Luhrmann, directed by Baz Luhrmann.
The Classic Love Story Set in Our Time.  (taglines)

Romeo Montague edit

  • Did my heart love 'til now?  Forswear it, sight, for I never saw true beauty 'til this night.
  • [to Tybalt after Mercutio's death]  Either thou, or I, or both, must go with him!
  • [after hearing about Juliet's death]  Then I defy you, stars!
  • A dateless bargain to engrossing death.
  • [last words]  Thus with a kiss I die.

Juliet Capulet edit

  • Romeo.  Oh, Romeo!  Wherefore art thou Romeo?
    • This line differs from the Shakespearean original:
      • O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo?
  • What's in a name?  That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet.
    • This line differs from the Shakespearean original:
      • What's in a name? that which we call a rose
        By any other name would smell as sweet
  • [last words]  Thy lips are warm.

Tybalt Capulet edit

Announcer edit

  • Two households, both alike in dignity, in fair Verona, where we lay our scene, from ancient grudge break to new mutiny, where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.  From forth the fatal loins of these two foes, a pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life.
  • For never was a story of more woe than this of Juliet and her Romeo.
    • This line belonged to Prince is Shakespeare's original.

Dialogue edit

Romeo:  If I profane with my unworthiest hand this holy shrine, the gentle sin is this.  My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand to smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss.  [kisses Juliet's hand]
Juliet:  Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, which mannerly devotion shows in this.  For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, and palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.
Romeo:  Have not saints lips, and holy palmers, too?  [attempts to kiss her lips]
Juliet:  [backing away]  Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer.
Romeo:  Well, then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do.  They pray, grant thou, lest faith turn to despair.
Juliet:  Saints do not move, though grant for prayers' sake.
Romeo:  Then move not, while my prayer's effect I take.  [they kiss]  Thus from my lips, by thine, my sin is purged.
Juliet:  Then have my lips the sin that they have took?
Romeo:  Sin from my lips?  Oh, trespass sweetly urged!  Give me my sin again.  [they kiss again]
Juliet:  You kiss by the book!
  • In Shakespeare's original, Romeo says "the gentle fine is this," not "the gentle sin is this"; "O, then, dear saint," not "Well, then, dear saint"; "by yours, my sin is purged," not "by thine, my sin is purged"; and "Sin from thy lips?" not "Sin from my lips?"

Romeo:  My love.  My wifeDeath, that hath sucked the honey of thy breath, hath had no power yet upon thy beauty.  Thou art not conquered.  Beauty's ensign yet is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, and death's pale flag is not advanced there.  Dear Juliet, why art thou yet so fair?  Shall I believe that unsubstantial death is amorous, he keeps thee here in dark to be his paramour?  [kisses Juliet; places ring upon her finger; she stirs; he does not notice]  Here, oh here will I set up my everlasting rest, and shake the yoke of inauspicious stars from this world-wearied flesh.  Eyes, look your last.  Arms, take your last embrace.  And, lips, oh you, the doors of breath, seal with a righteous kiss.  [kisses Juliet, whose eyes open; he does not notice]  A dateless bargain to engrossing death!  [drinks poison as Juliet's hand touches his face, too late to cease]
Juliet:  Romeo!  What's here?  Poison.  Drunk all, and left no friendly drop to help me after?  I'll kiss thy lips; happily, some poison yet doth hang on them.  [kisses him]  Thy lips are warm.
Romeo:  Thus with a kiss I die.  [dies; Juliet thereafter quickens her death by way of Romeo's gun]
  • This is an amalgamation of two moments from the Shakespearean original.  Although a number of lines by a number of characters appears between these two moments in the original, they do not interject in the film.
  • Romeo's original lines read as follows:
    • O my love! my wife!  Death, that hath suck'd the honey of thy breath, Hath had no power yet upon thy beauty: Thou art not conquer'd; beauty's ensign yet Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, And death's pale flag is not advanced there.  Tybalt, liest thou there in thy bloody sheet?  O, what more favour can I do to thee, Than with that hand that cut thy youth in twain To sunder his that was thine enemy?  Forgive me, cousin!  Ah, dear Juliet, Why art thou yet so fair? shall I believe That unsubstantial death is amorous, And that the lean abhorred monster keeps Thee here in dark to be his paramour?  For fear of that, I still will stay with thee; And never from this palace of dim night Depart again: here, here will I remain With worms that are thy chamber-maids; O, here Will I set up my everlasting rest, And shake the yoke of inauspicious stars From this world-wearied flesh.  Eyes, look your last!  Arms, take your last embrace! and, lips, O you The doors of breath, seal with a righteous kiss A dateless bargain to engrossing death!  Come, bitter conduct, come, unsavoury guide!  Thou desperate pilot, now at once run on  The dashing rocks thy sea-sick weary bark!  Here's to my love!  [drinksO true apothecary!  Thy drugs are quick.  Thus with a kiss I die.
  • Juliet does not wake in the original until after Romeo has died.  Her original lines read as follows:
    • Poison, I see, hath been his timeless end: O churl! drunk all, and left no friendly drop To help me after?  I will kiss thy lips; Haply some poison yet doth hang on them, To make die with a restorative.  [kisses him]  Thy lips are warm.
  • In this version, she quickens her death, as in the original, although in the original she does so upon hearing the approach of a watchman
    • .Yea, noise? then I'll be brief.  O happy dagger!  [snatching Romeo's daggerThis is thy sheath; [stabs herself] there rust, and let me die.

Taglines edit

  • Two households both alike in dignity, In fair Verona where we lay our scene.  From forth the fatal loins of these two foes, A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life.
  • My only love sprung from my only hate.
  • The Classic Love Story Set in Our Time.
  • The greatest love story the world has ever known.
  • Hope & DespairTragedy & Love.  Romeo & Juliet.
  • From Age to Age One Classic Story is as Timeless as Love Itself

Quotes about the film edit

Quotes from the filmmakers edit

[W]hen I read scripts for other movies now, I'm ridiculously disappointed.  It's impossible to measure up to Shakespeare.
~ Claire Danes
  • That was the biggest challenge, to reach the extremes in the gamut of emotions Juliet feels.  …  Everything about her is real; it's just heightened and very dramatic.  The trick is never to hide.  It was hard, sometimes, but it was a real treat to play her arc.
  • [W]hen I read scripts for other movies now, I'm ridiculously disappointed.  It's impossible to measure up to Shakespeare.
  • At first, I thought I would have to put on an English accent and try a sort of Affected Shakespeare Thing.  But, Baz explained that he wanted to make it very understandable and clear, and after working with him awhile, I began to feel more comfortable with it.  There is a lot of beauty in each word and when I began to dissect sentences, I'd find meanings referring to something way back in the script, or words with double and triple meanings.  So I really had to know what I was talking about to do the words justice; but at the same time, I had to make it conversational.  That was a challenge and different from anything I'd ever done—and I liked it.
  • I've always wanted to do Romeo and Juliet.  The themes it explores, the tragedy that is born of a prohibited love in a world of learned hate, is one of those primary myths that appeals to all people.  Romeo and Juliet, like all of Shakespeare's plays, touched everyone, from the street sweeper to the Queen of England.  He was a rambunctious, sexy, violent, entertaining storyteller.  We're trying to make this movie rambunctious, sexy, violent and entertaining the way Shakespeare might have if he was a filmmaker.
  • When Shakespeare wrote these plays, they were written for an accent that was much more, to paraphrase Anthony Burgess, like an American sound.  Our general perception of the way that Shakespeare should sound when it is acted is with what is termed in England RP, or received pronunciation, which is a sound with lots of round vowels that essentially developed in the last century.  So, when you do Shakespeare with an American accent, it makes it very strong, makes the language very alive.  It may or may not make the language sound less pretty, but I wanted to address this piece as a very boisterous, very real and passionate piece of storytelling, the way in which I believe Shakespeare wrote it.

Quotes from critics edit

Danes makes a breathtaking Juliet, merging strength and fragility into one.
~ James Berardinelli
  • I have never seen anything remotely approaching the mess that the new punk version of "Romeo & Juliet" makes of Shakespeare's tragedy.
  • Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes are talented and appealing young actors, but they're in over their heads here.
  • Not that there is much Shakespeare to be declaimed.  The movie takes a “Shakespeare's greatest hits” approach, giving us about as much of the original as we'd find in "Bartlett's Familiar Quotations."
  • No doubt I will receive mail from readers accusing me of giving away the story's ending by revealing that Romeo and Juliet die.  I had my answer all prepared:  If you do not already know what happens to the star-crossed lovers, then you are not the audience this movie is aiming for.  But, stay, my pen!  Perhaps you are.

Quotes from the soundtrack edit

William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet: Music from the Motion Picture (1996) is the soundtrack to the film.  It reached No. 2 on the Billboard 200 and resulted in a number of hit singles.

"#1 Crush" by Garbage edit

I will wash away your pain with all my tears and drown your fear
~ Garbage

Written by Garbage.

  • I will cry for you
    I will cry for you
    I will wash away your pain with all my tears
    And drown your fear

"Local God" by Everclear edit

Will you be my Romeo?
~ Everclear

Written by Art Alexakis and Everclear.

"Pretty Piece Of Flesh" by One Inch Punch edit

Written by Nellee Hooper, Marius De Vries, and Justin Warfield.

  • I am a pretty piece of flesh
  • Guess who's gonna be the first to pull it from you
    Butt of the steel seal representing Montague
    Lovelorn, torn from two sides, singin' of dark skies
    And through the heavens I be seeing worlds collide
  • With nickel-plated swords swinggin', livin' is crazy

"Kissing You (Love Theme from Romeo + Juliet)" by Des'ree edit

Written by Des'ree and Tim Atack.

"Whatever (I Had A Dream)" by Butthole Surfers edit

Juliet is up in Heaven, a pocket full of pills
~ Butthole Surfers

Written by Butthole Surfers, Nellee Hooper, Marius De Vries, Justin Warfield, M. Simpson, and J. King.

"Lovefool" by The Cardigans edit

Love me, love me, say that you love me
~ The Cardigans

Written by Peter Svensson and Nina Persson.

  • Love me, love me, say that you love me
    Fool me, fool me, go on and fool me
    Love me, love me, pretend that you love me
    Leave me, leave me, just say that you need me
  • Reason will not lead to solution
    I will end up lost in confusion
    I don't care if you really care
    As long as you don't go

"To You I Bestow" by Mundy edit

Written by Edmund Enright.

"Talk Show Host" by Radiohead edit

Written by Radiohead.

  • I want to be someone else or I'll explode

Cast edit

The House of Montague
The House of Capulet

External links edit

Wikipedia has an article about:

Category:1996 films Category:American films Category:Romantic drama films Category:Teen films Category:Baz Luhrmann films Category:Suicide films