Mark Bray

Hong Kong academic

Mark Bray is a historian of Modern Spain and the World, focusing on politics, human rights, and transnational history. He is the author of the 2017 book Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook.



Antifa: The Anti-Fascist Handbook (2017)

Antifa: The Antifascist Handbook. Melville House. 2017. ISBN 978-1-61219-704-3. 
  • Traditional elites were willing to concede many economic demands to liberals over the following decade in exchange for their abandonment of the revolution.
  • Although much smaller than their communists and socialists counterparts, the German anarchist militia Schwarze Scharen (Black Flocks, or Black Troops) was founded in 1929 to protect meetings of the Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD) anarcho-syndicalist union and the Syndicalist-Anarchist Youth. Outfitted entirely in black with matching berets, the Schwarze Scharen paired their Nazi street-fighting with creative propaganda including puppetry, music, and street theater. (The communist and socialist also had choirs, theater, and various forms of agitprop.) Although their ranks never exceeded the hundreds, in some towns they represented the main anti-fascist opposition. Nonetheless, their confrontational methods were opposed by some of the FAUD anarchist unionists. As the political atmosphere intensified, the Schwarze Scharen started to store explosives. In May 1932, based on a tip from an informant, their cache was raided. The arrests that followed this discovery, paired with Hitler's rise to power, sealed the fate of the Schwarze Scharen.