German resistance to Nazism
opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to Adolf Hitler or the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945
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- Anarchism had belonged to the most active resistance fighters against Nazi Germany, and their numbers had been decimated by the ruthless National Socialist persecution. Between 1919 and 1923 there had been approximately 1500,000 anarchists in Weimar Germany. By the end of the Weimar Republic, about 50,000 activists remained. In 1945 their numbers were down to 15,000, and many of those were seriously ill as consequence of torture and persecution. Hence, anarchist groups in the immediate post-war period had no more than about 5,000 members.
- Stefan Berger, Social Democracy and the Working Class: in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Germany. Routledge. 2014. pp. 184-185. ISBN 978-1-317-88577-1.
- Although much smaller than their communists and socialists counterparts, the German anarchist militia Schwarze Scharen (Black Flocks, or Black Troops) was founded in 1929 to protect meetings of the Free Workers' Union of Germany (FAUD) anarcho-syndicalist union and the Syndicalist-Anarchist Youth. Outfitted entirely in black with matching berets, the Schwarze Scharen paired their Nazi street-fighting with creative propaganda including puppetry, music, and street theater. (The communist and socialist also had choirs, theater, and various forms of agitprop.) Although their ranks never exceeded the hundreds, in some towns they represented the main anti-fascist opposition. Nonetheless, their confrontational methods were opposed by some of the FAUD anarchist unionists. As the political atmosphere intensified, the Schwarze Scharen started to store explosives. In May 1932, based on a tip from an informant, their cache was raided. The arrests that followed this discovery, paired with Hitler's rise to power, sealed the fate of the Schwarze Scharen.
- Official website of the acclaimed documentary of the resistance, The Restless Conscience, by Hava Kohav Beller
- German Resistance In The Third Reich – A Survivors Story Website documenting Arnold Hencke's resistance to the NAZI party and his subsequent imprisonment at Fuhlsbüttel concentration camp, by Greg McClelland.
- Sophie Scholl – The Final Days film website (in English)
- Sophie Scholl – Die letzten Tage film website (in German)
- The Geschwister-Scholl-Institut
- European Resistance Archive (ERA) | video interviews with members of the resistance
- Testimony of Gisevius in the Nuremberg Trials