Khums

(Redirected from Khumus)

In Islamic tradition, khums (Arabic: خمس‎ Arabic pronunciation: [xums], literally 'one fifth') refers to the historically required religious obligation of any Muslim army to pay one-fifth of the spoils of war, the money collected from non-believers after a military campaign; this tax was paid to the caliph or sultan, representing the state of Islam.

QuotesEdit

  • They ask thee concerning (things taken as) spoils of war. Say: "(such) spoils are at the disposal of Allah and the Messenger: So fear Allah, and keep straight the relations between yourselves: Obey Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe."
    • — Quran 8:1
  • "Say to the Unbelievers, if (now) they desist (from Unbelief), their past would be forgiven them; but if they persist, the punishment of those before them is already (a matter of warning for them). And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail Allah altogether and everywhere; but if they cease, verily Allah doth see all that they do. And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war), a fifth share is assigned to Allah,- and to the Messenger, and to near relatives, orphans, the needy, and the wayfarer,- if ye do believe in Allah and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the Day of Testing,- the Day of the meeting of the two forces. For Allah hath power over all things."
    • — Quran 8:38–41
  • If a Mussulman army subdue an infidel territory before any capitation-tax be established, the inhabitants, together with their wives and children, are all plunder, and the property of the state, as it is lawful to reduce to slavery all infidels, whether they be Kitcbees, Majoofees, or idolaters.
    • Burhan al-Din al-Marghinani, Al-Hidayah : Book IX, Chapter VIII, p. 213

Quotes in AhadithEdit

Hadith
  • When the Messenger of Allah appointed anyone as leader of an army or detachment he would especially exhort him to fear Allah and to be good to the Muslims who were with him. He would say: Fight in the name of Allah and in the way of Allah. Fight against those who disbelieve in Allah. Make a holy war, do not embezzle the spoils [of war, booty]; do not break your pledge; and do not mutilate the dead bodies; do not kill the children. When you meet your enemies who are polytheists, invite them to three courses of action. If they respond to any one of these, you also accept it and withhold yourself from doing them any harm. Invite them to accept Islam; if they respond to you, accept it from them and desist from fighting against them. Then invite them to migrate from their lands to the land of Muhairs and inform them that, if they do so, they shall have all the privileges and obligations of the Muhajirs. If they refuse to migrate, tell them that they will have the status of Bedouin Muslims and will be subjected to the Commands of Allah like other Muslims, but they will not get any share from the spoils of war or Fai' except when they actually fight with the Muslims against other disbelievers. If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah's help and fight them.
    • — Sahih Muslim, 19:4294

Sahih al-BukhariEdit

Sahih al-Bukhari, compiled by Muhammad al-Bukhari.

The Translation of the Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari, 1971Edit

Translated into English by Muhammad Muhsin Khan in The Translation of the Meanings Of Sahih Al-Bukhari, 1971. The Arabic text used for this work is from Fath Al-Bari, a multi-volume commentary on the Sunni hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari, composed by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani in the 15th century, published by the Egyptian Press of Mustafa Al-Babi Al-Halabi in 1959. Text online.
Note: the translation was published by the Islamic University of Madinah and many have associated the university with the Wahhabi Salafi ideology, and have stated it has exported Salafi-inclined theologians around the world. The chain of transmission are not present in the translation and the content inside parentheses, except complimentary phrases or durood, are commentaries by the translator not present in the Arabic text.
  • حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدَانُ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ، أَخْبَرَنَا يُونُسُ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ، أَنَّ حُسَيْنَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ، عَلَيْهِمَا السَّلاَمُ أَخْبَرَهُ أَنَّ عَلِيًّا قَالَ كَانَتْ لِي شَارِفٌ مِنْ نَصِيبِي مِنَ الْمَغْنَمِ يَوْمَ بَدْرٍ، وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَعْطَانِي شَارِفًا مِنَ الْخُمُسِ، فَلَمَّا أَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَبْتَنِيَ بِفَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَاعَدْتُ رَجُلاً صَوَّاغًا مِنْ بَنِي قَيْنُقَاعَ، أَنْ يَرْتَحِلَ مَعِيَ فَنَأْتِيَ بِإِذْخِرٍ أَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَبِيعَهُ الصَّوَّاغِينَ، وَأَسْتَعِينَ بِهِ فِي وَلِيمَةِ عُرْسِي، فَبَيْنَا أَنَا أَجْمَعُ لِشَارِفَىَّ مَتَاعًا مِنَ الأَقْتَابِ وَالْغَرَائِرِ وَالْحِبَالِ، وَشَارِفَاىَ مُنَاخَانِ إِلَى جَنْبِ حُجْرَةِ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ، رَجَعْتُ حِينَ جَمَعْتُ مَا جَمَعْتُ، فَإِذَا شَارِفَاىَ قَدِ اجْتُبَّ أَسْنِمَتُهُمَا وَبُقِرَتْ خَوَاصِرُهُمَا، وَأُخِذَ مِنْ أَكْبَادِهِمَا، فَلَمْ أَمْلِكْ عَيْنَىَّ حِينَ رَأَيْتُ ذَلِكَ الْمَنْظَرَ مِنْهُمَا، فَقُلْتُ مَنْ فَعَلَ هَذَا فَقَالُوا فَعَلَ حَمْزَةُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ، وَهْوَ فِي هَذَا الْبَيْتِ فِي شَرْبٍ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ‏.‏ فَانْطَلَقْتُ حَتَّى أَدْخُلَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَعِنْدَهُ زَيْدُ بْنُ حَارِثَةَ، فَعَرَفَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي وَجْهِي الَّذِي لَقِيتُ، فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ "‏ مَا لَكَ ‏"‏ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهَ، مَا رَأَيْتُ كَالْيَوْمِ قَطُّ، عَدَا حَمْزَةُ عَلَى نَاقَتَىَّ، فَأَجَبَّ أَسْنِمَتَهُمَا وَبَقَرَ خَوَاصِرَهُمَا، وَهَا هُوَ ذَا فِي بَيْتٍ مَعَهُ شَرْبٌ‏.‏ فَدَعَا النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِرِدَائِهِ فَارْتَدَى ثُمَّ انْطَلَقَ يَمْشِي، وَاتَّبَعْتُهُ أَنَا وَزَيْدُ بْنُ حَارِثَةَ حَتَّى جَاءَ الْبَيْتَ الَّذِي فِيهِ حَمْزَةُ، فَاسْتَأْذَنَ فَأَذِنُوا لَهُمْ فَإِذَا هُمْ شَرْبٌ، فَطَفِقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَلُومُ حَمْزَةَ فِيمَا فَعَلَ، فَإِذَا حَمْزَةُ قَدْ ثَمِلَ مُحْمَرَّةً عَيْنَاهُ، فَنَظَرَ حَمْزَةُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، ثُمَّ صَعَّدَ النَّظَرَ فَنَظَرَ إِلَى رُكْبَتِهِ، ثُمَّ صَعَّدَ النَّظَرَ فَنَظَرَ إِلَى سُرَّتِهِ، ثُمَّ صَعَّدَ النَّظَرَ فَنَظَرَ إِلَى وَجْهِهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ حَمْزَةُ هَلْ أَنْتُمْ إِلاَّ عَبِيدٌ لأَبِي فَعَرَفَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَدْ ثَمِلَ، فَنَكَصَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى عَقِبَيْهِ الْقَهْقَرَى وَخَرَجْنَا مَعَهُ‏.‏
    • Narrated Ali: I got a she-camel in my share of the war booty on the day (of the battle) of Badr, and the Prophet had given me a she-camel from the Khumus. When I intended to marry Fatima, the daughter of Allah's Apostle, I had an appointment with a goldsmith from the tribe of Bani Qainuqa' to go with me to bring Idhkhir (i.e. grass of pleasant smell) and sell it to the goldsmiths and spend its price on my wedding party. I was collecting for my she-camels equipment of saddles, sacks and ropes while my two she-camels were kneeling down beside the room of an Ansari man. I returned after collecting whatever I collected, to see the humps of my two she-camels cut off and their flanks cut open and some portion of their livers was taken out. When I saw that state of my two she-camels, I could not help weeping. I asked, "Who has done this?" The people replied, "Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib who is staying with some Ansari drunks in this house." I went away till I reached the Prophet and Zaid bin Haritha was with him. The Prophet noticed on my face the effect of what I had suffered, so the Prophet asked. "What is wrong with you." I replied, "O Allah's Apostle! I have never seen such a day as today. Hamza attacked my two she-camels, cut off their humps, and ripped open their flanks, and he is sitting there in a house in the company of some drunks." The Prophet then asked for his covering sheet, put it on, and set out walking followed by me and Zaid bin Haritha till he came to the house where Hamza was. He asked permission to enter, and they allowed him, and they were drunk. Allah's Apostle started rebuking Hamza for what he had done, but Hamza was drunk and his eyes were red. Hamza looked at Allah's Apostle and then he raised his eyes, looking at his knees, then he raised up his eyes looking at his umbilicus, and again he raised up his eyes look in at his face. Hamza then said, "Aren't you but the slaves of my father?" Allah's Apostle realized that he was drunk, so Allah's Apostle retreated, and we went out with him.
  • حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ الضُّبَعِيِّ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ يَقُولُ قَدِمَ وَفْدُ عَبْدِ الْقَيْسِ فَقَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّا هَذَا الْحَىَّ مِنْ رَبِيعَةَ، بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكَ كُفَّارُ مُضَرَ، فَلَسْنَا نَصِلُ إِلَيْكَ إِلاَّ فِي الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ، فَمُرْنَا بِأَمْرٍ نَأْخُذُ مِنْهُ وَنَدْعُو إِلَيْهِ مَنْ وَرَاءَنَا‏.‏ قَالَ ‏ "‏ آمُرُكُمْ بِأَرْبَعٍ، وَأَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْ أَرْبَعٍ، الإِيمَانِ بِاللَّهِ شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ ـ وَعَقَدَ بِيَدِهِ ـ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلاَةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ وَصِيَامِ رَمَضَانَ، وَأَنْ تُؤَدُّوا لِلَّهِ خُمُسَ مَا غَنِمْتُمْ، وَأَنْهَاكُمْ عَنِ الدُّبَّاءِ وَالنَّقِيرِ وَالْحَنْتَمِ وَالْمُزَفَّتِ ‏"‏‏.‏
    • Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The delegates of the tribe of 'Abdul-Qais came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are from the tribe of Rabi'a, and there is the infidels of the tribe of Mudar intervening between you and us, so we cannot come to you except in the Sacred Months. So please order us some instructions that we may apply it to ourselves and also invite our people whom we left behind us to observe as well." The Prophet said, "I order you (to do) four (things) and forbid you (to do) four: I order you to believe in Allah, that is, to testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah (the Prophet pointed with his hand); to offer prayers perfectly; to pay Zakat; to fast the month of Ramadan, and to pay the Khums (i.e. one-fifth) of the war booty to Allah. And I forbid you to use Ad-dubba, An-Naqir, Al-Hantam and Al-Muzaffat (i.e. utensils used for preparing alcoholic drinks)."
    • Number 327
      • Chain of transmission: Abu Nu'man ⟶ Hammad ⟶ Abu Hamza al-Dhaba'i ⟶ Ibn Abbas
  • حَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ مَنْصُورٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ فِي أُسَارَى بَدْرٍ ‏ "‏ لَوْ كَانَ الْمُطْعِمُ بْنُ عَدِيٍّ حَيًّا، ثُمَّ كَلَّمَنِي فِي هَؤُلاَءِ النَّتْنَى، لَتَرَكْتُهُمْ لَهُ ‏"‏‏.‏
  • حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو النُّعْمَانِ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ أَيُّوبَ، عَنْ نَافِعٍ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَلَىَّ اعْتِكَافُ يَوْمٍ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ، فَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَفِيَ بِهِ‏.‏ قَالَ وَأَصَابَ عُمَرُ جَارِيَتَيْنِ مِنْ سَبْىِ حُنَيْنٍ، فَوَضَعَهُمَا فِي بَعْضِ بُيُوتِ مَكَّةَ ـ قَالَ ـ فَمَنَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى سَبْىِ حُنَيْنٍ، فَجَعَلُوا يَسْعَوْنَ فِي السِّكَكِ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ يَا عَبْدَ اللَّهِ، انْظُرْ مَا هَذَا فَقَالَ مَنَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى السَّبْىِ‏.‏ قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَأَرْسِلِ الْجَارِيَتَيْنِ‏.‏ قَالَ نَافِعٌ وَلَمْ يَعْتَمِرْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم مِنَ الْجِعْرَانَةِ وَلَوِ اعْتَمَرَ لَمْ يَخْفَ عَلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ‏.‏ وَزَادَ جَرِيرُ بْنُ حَازِمٍ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ مِنَ الْخُمُسِ‏.‏ وَرَوَاهُ مَعْمَرٌ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ فِي النَّذْرِ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ يَوْمَ‏.‏
    • Narrated Nafi: 'Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "O Allah's Apostle! I vowed to observe I'tikaf for one day during the Pre-lslamic period." The Prophet ordered him to fulfill his vow.
      'Umar gained two lady captives from the war prisoners of Hunain and he left them in some of the houses at Mecca. When Allah's Apostle freed the captives of Hunain without ransom, they came out walking in the streets. 'Umar said (to his son), "O Abdullah! See what is the matter." 'Abdullah replied, "Allah's Apostle has freed the captives without ransom." He said (to him), "Go and set free those two slave girls."
      (Nafi added:) Allah's Apostle did not perform the 'Umra from Al-Jarana, and if he had performed the 'Umra, it would not have been hidden from 'Abdullah.

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