infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-containing sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.


  • Tuberculosis is one of the classical afflictions of city life associated with poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition, and industrial stress. It often occurs when there is transition from a rural to urban life.
  • During the period 1960–1980, with lower incidences and decreasing trends, TB ceased to be pursued actively as a research subject in several western countries. However, it continued to be a focus of research in developing countries, especially in India, where TB was and continues to be a major health burden. The late Prof. M. Sirsi is acknowledged to have initiated TB research at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, one of the premier institutions of India.
  • Tuberculosis is the most prevalent bacterial infectious disease in humans and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, ranking above HIV/AIDS. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is carried by an estimated two billion people globally and claims more than 1.5 million lives each year. Tuberculosis rates are significantly higher in men than in women, reflected by a male-to-female ratio for worldwide case notifications of 1.7. This phenomenon is not new and has been reported in various countries and settings over the last century. However, the reasons for the observed gender bias are not clear, potentially highly complex and discussed controversially in the literature.
  • ... Rosen et al. in 1990, reported 12 patients with intraocular tuberculosis, 9 of whom presented with retinal vasculitis, 2 with choroidal tubercles, and 1 with chronic anterior uveitis ... In a prospective study from Spain, Bouza et al. examined 100 randomly selected patients from a population of 300 patients with proven systemic tuberculosis ... Ocular involvement was diagnosed in 18 patients (18%). Choroidal involvement was present in all but one of these, and retinal involvement was found in 6 patients.

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