The Chicago Manual of Style

academic style guide by University of Chicago Press

The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (2017). Editions 1–16 in background.


  • The first word in a quoted passage must often be adjusted to conform to the surrounding text. In most types of works, this adjustment may be done silently. ... In some types of works, however, it may be obligatory to indicate the change by bracketing the initial quoted letter; for examples of this practice, appropriate to legal writing and some types of textual commentary, see 13.16.
  • p. 624
  • Ellipsis points are normally not used (1) before the first word of a quotation, even if the beginning of the original sentence has been omitted; or (2) after the last word of the quotation, even if the end of the original sentence has been omitted, unless the sentence as quoted is deliberately incomplete.
  • p. 638

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