Temporary work or temporary employment refers to an employment situation where the working arrangement is limited to a certain period of time based on the needs of the employing organization. Temporary employees are sometimes called "contractual", "seasonal", "interim", "casual staff", "outsourcing", "freelance"; or the word may be shortened to "temps". In some instances, temporary, highly skilled professionals (particularly in the white-collar worker fields, such as law, engineering, and accounting) refer to themselves as "consultants."
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- Starting one’s working life in an irregular job can lead to a fruitful career or to long-term stagnation. While studies of European labour markets support the stepping-stone hypothesis, this column presents evidence that irregular jobs lead to negative midlife outcomes in Japan. Future jobs are less stable, pay less, and psychological distress is higher. Such problems suggest a role for policy to reduce economic and social disadvantages of non-regular workers. [...] Our estimation results show that initial job status as an irregular employee reduces opportunities for success in later life in Japan. This finding contrasts with observations from previous studies in European countries, where beginning working life with fixed-term contracts and other non-regular job statuses does not necessarily signal a bad start. Further, the current study highlighted the traumatic impact of initial unstable job status on mental health; influence of this status is not fully mediated by socioeconomic/marital status. We can argue that policy measures are needed to reduce economic and social disadvantages of non-regular workers in Japan.
- Takashi Oshio and Seiichi Inagaki, "Does initial job status affect midlife outcomes and mental health? Evidence from a survey in Japan" (26 September 2014)