Syria ( سوريا or سورية ), officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية العربية السورية ), is a country in the Middle East, bordering Lebanon to the west, Israel to the southwest, Jordan to the south, Iraq to the east, and Turkey to the north. The modern state of Syria attained independence from the French mandate of Syria in 1946, but can trace its roots to the fourth millennium BC; its capital city, Damascus, was the seat of the Umayyad Empire and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Empire.
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- During the era of Assad junior… Damascus-Tehran relations have changed from alliance to blind obedience... The Iranians have found their way into Syria, which is obvious from the size of Iran's diplomatic mission in Damascus, numbering hundreds of officials!
- Saudi columnist for Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, Saudi Columnists Criticize Iran, Syria, Hizbullah. MEMRI (September 18, 2007).