country in South Asia

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल [nepal]), formerly the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is mainly situated in the Himalayas, with the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, and India in the south, east, and west. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-cultural state, with Nepali as the official language. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and the largest city.

The national flag of Nepal, adopted in 1962.


The National Emblem of Nepal


Nepal as the land of Buddha, has much to offer to the world and the world is increasingly attracted to Nepal.
  • Nepal and China are neighbours and close friends, sharing a long history of friendship and cooperation. Geography, culture and traditions bind our two countries and peoples. We are trustworthy friends. We have been faithfully conducting our relations on the basis of the ‘Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence’. Our relations are trouble-free.... ‘Prosperous Nepal, Happy Nepali’ is our national resolve. Our development efforts keep our people at the centre... Our development challenges are huge and manifold. Our country is endowed with both natural and human resources. But we lack adequate material resources and technology to tap development potentials. Therefore, we need support and cooperation of international community including neighbours to realize our national resolve... Government and the people of Nepal always appreciate the Government and the people of China for their continued support and assistance to the socio-economic development endeavours of Nepal... We have an-investment friendly environment in Nepal. Political stability has ensured policy stability and security of the investors.
  • In Nepal, we are bearing the disproportionate burden of climate change and facing climate shocks such as frequent landslides, storms, floods, and wildfires. The melting of glaciers and the drying-up of snow-fed rivers have been adversely affecting the lives and livelihoods of people downstream and rendering us one of the most vulnerable countries... To combat the climate crisis and address vulnerabilities, we have localized the adaptation plans in Nepal. While remaining fully committed to the Paris Agreement, we have set ambitious target of reaching a net-zero scenario by 2045
  • Nepal pursues path of democratic system with people’s welfare at the centre... The Constitution of Nepal guarantees the proportional representation and participation of all sections of our society in national life. It guarantees at least 33 percent representation of women in federal and provincial parliaments and 40 percent at the local level. As a result, the participation of women, youth, and disadvantaged groups has increased significantly in politics and other spheres of national life. It has not only ensured their rightful place but also injected dynamism, justice, and fairness into society.
For many, Nepal’s greatest attraction is its people.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Nepal (2022)

  • Nepal is the country of the Mount Everest, the highest mountain peak in the world, and the Birthplace of Gautama Buddha- Lumbini. Mountaineering and other types of adventure tourism and ecotourism are important attractions for visitors. There are other important religious pilgrimage sites throughout the country for the followers of various sects and religions.
  • For many, Nepal’s greatest attraction is its people. The traditions and famous hospitality of its many different groups are indeed a major part of what makes Nepal so special. From remote mountain villages to medieval hill-towns and the ancient cities of the Kathmandu Valley, the people of Nepal are always welcoming. Come and experience the strong and unique flavors of Nepalese cuisine, prepared with love and a depth of flavor or join in and celebrate at one of the many festivals year round. In fact, with more festivals than days of the year, there is nowhere else in the world that can offer as many festivities as Nepal.
  • Tourism is one of the mainstay of Nepalese economy. It is also a major source of foreign exchange and revenue. Possessing 8 of the 10 highest mountains in the world, Nepal is a hotspot destination for mountaineers, rock climbers and people seeking adventures. The Hindu, Buddhist and other cultural heritage sites of Nepal, and around the year fair weather are also strong attractions.
  • Nepal is a multi-religious society. The major religion in Nepal is Hinduism, and the Pashupatinath Temple, which is the world’s one of the main Hindu religious sites is located in Kathmandu, attracts many pilgrims and tourists. Other Hindu pilgrimage sites include the temple complex in Swargadwari located in the Pyuthan district, Lake Gosainkunda near Dhunche, the temples at Devghat, Manakamana temple in the Gorkha District, and Pathibhara near Phungling, Mahamrityunjaya Shivasan Nepal in Palpa District where biggest metallic idol of Lord Shiva is located.
  • Buddhism another main religion. The World Heritage site Lumbini, which is the birthplace of Gautama Buddha, is an important pilgrimage site. Another prominent Buddhist site is Swayambhunath, the Monkey Temple, in Kathmandu. Dang valley is also a sacred place for Hindus as well as other religions. Kalika and Malika Devi in Chhillikot hill, Ambekeshawori temple, Krishna temple, Dharapani temple etc. are sacred place in Dang district. Chillikot hill is also a good place for sightseeing and also an ancient palace of a king. Muktinath is a sacred place for Hindus as well as Buddhists. The site is located in Muktinath Valley, Mustang district.

Quotes about Nepal

Nepal is synonymous with trekking: trips are easy and inexpensive to organize and there is a mind-boggling range of trails, from easy self-guided day hikes to epic multi-week expeditions.
  • With their distinctive blue saris, 52,000 female community-health volunteers are at the front lines of medical care in Nepal. Since 1988, they’ve provided maternal and child health information and health services throughout the Himalayan kingdom, treating diarrhea and pneumonia, the primary causes of childhood mortality, as well as other diseases that crop up among Nepal’s rural-dwelling citizens... Other countries have launched similar programs, but Nepal has “one of the biggest, longest running successful programs in the world,” said Claire Glenton, senior scientist at the Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services.
    • The Women Who Keep Nepal Healthy, The Atlantic, (September 23, 2015)
The Kathmandu Valley village of Bodhnath (also known as Bouda) is home to a thriving community of Tibetan Buddhist exiles. Its focal point is a monumental whitewashed stupa, which was built around 600 CE and draws pilgrims from far and wide...
  • Given the unique experience Nepal offers because of its diversity in nature and culture, Nepal tourism offers an opportunity to wanderlust in its wilderness and adventure activities. The southern plains for safari, mid hills for adventures and luxury, high mountains for trekking and mountaineering. Major adventure products, include trekking along the Himalaya trail, Hiking and mountaineering expeditions, rafting, kayaking, Canoeing, mountain flights and ultralight flights. It also offers bird watching, paragliding, jungle safari, zip line and bungee jumping in the deep ravines.
    • Nepal offers a lifetime experience, that’s not enough once, The Business Standard (November 22, 2021)
  • Whenever any attack on Hinduism threatens, all Nepali Hindus have done was to give in without a fight. A few years ago, the Maoists demanded the abolition of the Sanskrit class in schools, and the course was dropped at once. .... Ever since I first met a Nepali Hindu (at Benares Hindu university in 1989) and he gave me an account of the situation in Nepal, I have been very pessimistic about the future of Hinduism there. Never in the intervening years has even a single news item reached my ear that indicated a counter-trend, it was slowly downhill all along. Bangladeshi infiltrators accumulated, the ISI set up shop, the Christian missionaries lambasted the country's anti-conversion law all while making converts by the thousands...
    • Elst, Koenraad The argumentative Hindu. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. 225-27 (2012).
  • The [June 2023 interfaith] conference showed that Nepal’s civil society is ahead of the government in promoting religious freedom and a peaceful coexistence between religions, although radicals exist on all sides.
    International institutions should continue to tell Nepal that its Constitution and laws that prohibit converting Nepalese citizens from one religion to another should be amended.
  • Nepal is synonymous with trekking: trips are easy and inexpensive to organize and there is a mind-boggling range of trails, from easy self-guided day hikes to epic multi-week expeditions. They provide both dramatic Himalayan scenery – Nepal boasts eight of the 10 tallest mountains on Earth – and a fascinating insight into the diverse cultures of the highlands.
    The Kathmandu Valley village of Bodhnath (also known as Bouda) is home to a thriving community of Tibetan Buddhist exiles. Its focal point is a monumental whitewashed stupa, which was built around 600 CE and draws pilgrims from far and wide... Numerous monasteries and institutes in Bodhnath run courses for foreign visitors on Tibetan Buddhist theory, practice and meditation, ranging from introductory seminars to advanced study programs.
  • There are daily direct overnight buses to various places in Nepal... If you are travelling on a fixed budget, opt for one of the many hostels, homestays and budget hotels... Winter is the best time to visit Nepal... When in Nepal, eat like a local. And eat where locals eat. Local food will be a lot cheaper than most restaurants with an international menu. Ask around for Bhojanalayas—local food joints... Take the local bus... public buses cover almost every part of Nepal and are inexpensive. If you are not in a hurry, buses will save you a lot of money. Treks in Langtang, Annapurna region and Everest Base Camp are easy treks and can be done independently too, meaning without hiring a guide. Trekking solo is not advisable if you are not familiar with the places (even if you are). You will find plenty of other like-minded budget travellers like yourself, in search of a trekking partner.
  • Nepal is an ancient State that has existed in various forms for more than 2500 years. The existence of Nepal is mentioned in religious scriptures of ancient Hindu and Buddhist civilisations. Neolithic tools found during excavations in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people were living in the Himalayan region in the far distant past. The Mahabharata and other legendary epics mention geographical names and ethnic groups associated with Nepal, such as the Kiratas of Nepal.
    There is an ever-growing global interest in the values of the East since Eastern concepts such as non-violence, yoga, vegetarianism, nirvana, karma, meditation, and mindfulness, all informed by the teachings of Buddha, have become global phenomena. Hence, Nepal as the land of Buddha, has much to offer to the world and the world is increasingly attracted to Nepal... it remains a Shangri-la; and the country traditionally known as the land of meditation and contemplation (ज्ञान भूमम - तपो भूमम) still offers abundant opportunities to work towards achieving peace both within the region and beyond.
  • Because of Nepal’s strategic location, its favourable climatic conditions, its reputation as a tourist haven, as a gateway to the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, as a country which traditionally pursues a policy of neutrality or nonalignment vis-à-vis not only its immediate neighbours but also other major powers outside of the region, Nepal is well placed to attract foreign investment.
  • The country’s rugged terrain, infrastructure gaps, inadequate human capital and political uncertainty continue to constrain economic growth and development. Nepal is highly vulnerable to disasters caused by natural hazards, climate change, and environmental degradation. COVID-19 also continues to affect Nepal’s achievements on economic growth, inclusiveness, and poverty reduction...
    Weak governance has long affected the effectiveness of development assistance to Nepal, and the country faces challenges to ensure the smooth implementation of federalism. These include limited capacity at subnational levels, slow progress in passing needed legislations and deployment of staff, and lack of clarity on the mandates and responsibilities as well as coordination among the three tiers of government.
  • "It's spreading like wildfire. The cultural identity is at stake. The fabric of the national unity is at stake," argues former deputy prime minister, Kamal Thapa. He views the Korean missionary work as an "organised attack on the cultural identity of the country". "Missionaries are working behind the scenes and exploiting the poor and ignorant people and encouraging them to convert to Christianity. "This is not a case of religious freedom. This is a case of exploitation in the name of religion," he says.
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