Job performance assesses whether a person performs a job well. Job performance, studied academically as part of industrial and organizational psychology (the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace), also forms a part of human resources management.
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A - FEdit
- In this line of thought Campbell (1993) developed an influential model containing eight dimensions to measure job performance (Jex 2002 pp. 90-92):
- Job-specific task proficiency: behaviour related to core tasks of the job;
- Non-job-specific task proficiency: general work behaviour;
- Written and oral communication task proficiency;
- Demonstrating effort: level of commitment to core tasks;
- Maintaining personal discipline;
- Facilitating peer and team performance;
- From a supervisor‟s perspective, on the other hand, outcomes are the key elements for job performance appraisal.
- Jae Vanden Berghe. Job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. (2011).
- A threshold competency is a person's generic knowledge, motive, trait, self image, social role, or skill which is essential to performing a job, but is not causally related to superior job performance.
- Richard Boyatzis (1982) Competent manager : a model for effective performance. New York, John Wiley & Sons. p. 23.
- The power to distinguish between person and performance and to communicate intrinsic worth flows naturally out of our own sense of intrinsic worth.
- Stephen Covey, Principle-Centered Leadership (1992); Ch. 11 : Thirty Methods of Influence
G - LEdit
- Job performance is a deceptively simple term. At the most general level, it can be defined simply as “all of the behaviors employees engage in while at work.” Unfortunately, this is a rather imprecise definition because employees often engage in behaviors at work that have little or nothing to do with job-specific tasks.
- Steve M. Jex, Thomas W. Britt (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. John Wiley & Sons; 2nd ed. 2008. p. 88
- By definition, job performance is behavior, so job performance is rarely measured directly. More typically, what is measured is some external assessment of job performance.
- Steve M. Jex, Thomas W. Britt (2002). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. John Wiley & Sons; 2nd ed. 2008. p. 100
- Each sent pressure can be regarded as arousing in the focal person a psychological force of some magnitude and direction. Such forces will be called role forces. This is not to say that these motivational role forces are identical in magnitude and direction with the role pressures which evoked them. Especially when role pressures are seen as illegitimate or coercive, they may arouse strong resistance forces which lead to outcomes different from or even opposite to the expected behavior. Pressures to increase production rates sometimes result in slowdowns. Moreover, every person is subject to a variety of psychological forces in addition to those stimulated by pressures from his role set in the work situation. Role pressures are thus only a partial determinant of behavior on the job. In addition, to the motivational forces aroused by role pressures, there are important internal sources of motivation for role performance. One of these stems from the intrinsic satisfaction derived from the content of the role.
- Robert L. Kahn et al. (1964) Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity, p. 16-17
- Research reveal that managers achieving better performance (i.e., greater productivity, higher earnings, lower costs, etc. ) differ in leadership principles and practices from those achieving poorer performance.
- Rensis Likert, New patterns of management. (1961), p. 3
- As tasks become more varied and require greater training and skill, the relationship (between job attitudes and performance) appears to change progressively from the negative to positive.
- Rensis Likert, New patterns of management. (1961), p. 16
- [Each person] is a member of one or more functioning workgroups that have a high degree of group loyalty, effective skills of interaction and high performance goals.
- Rensis Likert, New patterns of management. (1961), p. 104