Jai Singh II

Maharaja of Jaipur

Jai Singh II (3 November 1688 – 21 September 1743) was the ruler of the Kingdom of Amber, who later founded the fortified city of Jaipur and made it his capital. He was born at Amber, the capital of the Kachwahas. He was the 29th Kachhwaha ruler. He became ruler of Amber at the age of 11 after his father Raja Bishan Singh died on 31 December 1699.

A painting of Jai Singh II


  • By dint of merit, Jai Singh emerged among the most formidable princes of north India.
    • Jain, M. (2010). Parallel pathways: Essays on Hindu-Muslim relations, 1707-1857. p 118
  • Jai Singh II was perhaps the most cultivated sovereign that ever reigned in India.
    • George Bruce Malleson, An Historical Sketch of the Native States of India in Subsidiary Alliance
  • Sawai Jai Singh’s forceful representation to the Emperor seeking abolition of Jizya is very significant and helpful in understanding the feelings of the Hindus regarding this unjust tax. Shiv Das in ShÁhnÁma Munawwar KalÁm has thus described the historic scene. He writes that on account of chaos, famine and high prices of grain in that year (1720 A.D.), the people were experiencing much distress which was further accentuated by the measures taken for realization of Jizya by the Wazir Muhammad Amin Khan. In such a situation, the mahÁjans (bankers), beopÁrÍs (merchants and traders) and businessmen belonging to the Hindu community ‚assembled together of their own accord, and with full agreement of all, lodged complaint and closed their shops in the capital. They thus revealed the injustice and oppression on the part of the Wazir Amin Khan.‛ He further writes that Rajadhiraj Jai Singh Sawai interceded on their behalf. He represented to the Emperor thus: ‚In this land of Hindustan, there are two tÁ’ifat (nations or communities)- Hindus and Musalmans. Hindustan had been formerly inhabited by the Hindus, but afterwards, through jihÁd of the mujtahidÍn, the religion of Islam got currency.‛ The Rajadhiraj further said, ‚Your Majesty is the Sovereign of Hind (India) and the people of both the firqa (communities) equally offer prayers for your Majesty’s welfare, nay the Hindus do it more, for the Musalmans are of same religion and of the same faith as your Majesty, whereas Hindus enjoy repose and tranquility under the shadow of protection of their land, and offer their prayer before the threshold of Him who listens to them and grants the petition of his supplicant for the stability of the Empire and health and safety of the sacred Majesty.‛ He then described how after the assassination of Saiyad Hussain Ali and before the battle with Abdulla Khan, he had summoned all parganas and made Emperor, and that he had given them solemn assurance that after the Emperor’s victory, he would first make supplication and secure Emperor’s orders for ‚exemption and remission of Jizya and then secure (for them) daily allowance and revenue grants (madad-i-ma‘Ásh). Raja Girdhar Bahadur, the NÁzim of Awadh province, made a similar request whereupon Emperor Muhammad Rhah ‚remitted Jizya upon all the Hindus which amounted to four crores of rupees in all the territories under the imperial jurisdiction. Orders were issued that Jizya on this community (Hindus) be deemed to have been abolished till the existence of the Empire and its sense of justice remains.‛ Accordingly, it was ordered that the nobles, the accountants and officers responsible for State affairs ‚shall on no account or the Hindus from villages, towns and them all pray for the victory of the any excuse hinder or meddle with the Hindu community with regard to the realization of Jizya.‛
    • Shiv Das, ShÁhnÁma Munawwar KalÁm, (tr. by Syed Hasan Askari), pp.112-14. . in Bhatnagar, V. S. (2020). Emperor Aurangzeb and Destruction of Temples, Conversions and Jizya : (a study largely based on his court bulletins or akhbārāt darbār muʻalla) Shiv Das, ShÁhnÁma Munawwar KalÁm, tr. Syed Hasan Askari, Patna, 1973.
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