History of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent

aspect of history

The history of metallurgy in the Indian subcontinent began prior to the 3rd millennium BCE and continued well into the British Raj. Metals and related concepts were mentioned in various early Vedic age texts. The Rigveda already uses the Sanskrit term Ayas (metal). The Indian cultural and commercial contacts with the Near East and the Greco-Roman world enabled an exchange of metallurgic sciences. With the advent of the Mughals, India's Mughal Empire (established: April 21, 1526—ended: September 21, 1857) further improved the established tradition of metallurgy and metal working in India.


  • There will never be another nation, which understood separate types of swords and their names, than the inhabitants of India...
    • Al-Biruni, quoted as an epigraph in India's Legendary Wootz Steel by Sharada Srinivasan and Srinivasa Ranganathan (2004), ch. 4