Elam (/ˈiːləm/; Elamite: 𒁹𒄬𒆷𒁶𒋾 haltamti; Sumerian: 𒉏𒈠𒆠 NIM.MAki; Hebrew: עֵילָם}} ʿÊlām; Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎩 Ūvja) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature Elam was also known as Susiana (UK: /ˌsuːziˈɑːnə/, US: /ˌsuːʒiˈænə/; Ancient Greek: Σουσιανή Sousiānḗ), a name derived from its capital Susa.
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- My lord has become distressed about the battles in Elam. But the Elamites' grain rations have quickly been exhausted, so do not slacken your forces! Do not fall head first into their slavery, nor follow at their heels!
- Elam, a raging dog, a destroyer, will not defile E-kic-nu-jal, the sanctuary which covers heaven and earth.