ancient pre-Iranian civilization between 2700 and 539 BC

Elam (/ˈiːləm/; Elamite: 𒁹𒄬𒆷𒁶𒋾 haltamti; Sumerian: 𒉏𒈠𒆠 NIM.MAki; Hebrew: עֵילָם}} ʿÊlām; Old Persian: 𐎢𐎺𐎩 Ūvja) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq. The modern name Elam stems from the Sumerian transliteration elam(a), along with the later Akkadian elamtu, and the Elamite haltamti. Elamite states were among the leading political forces of the Ancient Near East. In classical literature Elam was also known as Susiana (UK: /ˌsuːziˈɑːnə/, US: /ˌsuːʒiˈænə/; Ancient Greek: Σουσιανή Sousiānḗ), a name derived from its capital Susa.

Map showing the area of the Elamite Empire (in orange) and the neighboring areas. The approximate Bronze Age extension of the Persian Gulf is shown.

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