China–Russia relations

bilateral relations between China and Russia

China–Russia relations, also known as Sino-Russian relations, refers to international relations between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation, along with its predecessors the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Despite both being Communist countries which had close relations during the 1950s, at the end of the decade relations grew more hostile in the Sino-Soviet split which lasted for the rest of the Cold War. Diplomatic relations between China and Russia improved after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and establishment of the Russian Federation in 1991.

The sides believe that peace, development and cooperation lie at the core of the modern international system. ~ [ Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China (4 February 2022)



Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China on the International Relations Entering a New Era and the Global Sustainable Development, February 4, 2022


(Full text)

  • The sides oppose further enlargement of NATO and call on the North Atlantic Alliance to abandon its ideologized cold war approaches, to respect the sovereignty, security and interests of other countries, the diversity of their civilizational, cultural and historical backgrounds, and to exercise a fair and objective attitude towards the peaceful development of other States. The sides stand against the formation of closed bloc structures and opposing camps in the Asia-Pacific region and remain highly vigilant about the negative impact of the United States' Indo-Pacific strategy on peace and stability in the region. Russia and China have made consistent efforts to build an equitable, open and inclusive security system in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR) that is not directed against third countries and that promotes peace, stability and prosperity.

Quotes about

  • The statement underscores only the obvious: No country, and no political party or movement has the ultimate answers to all the difficult questions of social development. Therefore, there should be no hierarchy or subordination among states on the basis of how they organize their political and social lives. This, however, does not imply that there are no universal human rights, which all the states have to honor and protect. Such universal rights do exist, but they should be defined by the international community at large, not by a small group of countries proclaiming themselves as “model” democracies.
  • People in China generally believe supporting Russia over its invasion of Ukraine is in China’s best interest, according to a survey by an American think tank. And, after assessing the age, gender, education, income and media diet of the respondents, analysts with the US-China Perception Monitor, a programme under the Carter Centre, found that a higher education and a greater exposure to national state media and social media were associated with a higher level of support for actions favouring Russia. The poll relating to the ongoing crisis in Ukraine was conducted in the Chinese language between March 28 and April 5. The think tank received 4,886 complete responses from Chinese internet users.
  • At first, in the 1950s, Chairman Mao and his leadership group believed that China’s progress could only come within the Soviet-led community of Communist states. But by the latter part of the decade, doubts had set in. Soviet-style development seemed all too slow for Mao. He wanted to see China excel in his own lifetime. After 1956, the Chairman believed for a while that Khrushchev’s attempts at reforming the Soviet bloc and making it more equal and diverse could satisfy China’s needs. But Soviet criticism of China’s fast-forward development plans disabused him of such notions. Amid conflicts over domestic development as well as international affairs, the Sino-Soviet alliance floundered. By the early 1960s the concept of “brother states” was gone, to be replaced with an enmity so deep that it almost led to war at the end of the decade.
    • Odd Arne Westad, The Cold War: A World History (2017)
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