Bioremediation

pollution treatment technique

Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants.


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Bioremediation is being used with increasing frequency to remediate contaminated media at hazardous waste sites because, compared with other remediation technologies, it often is less expensive and more acceptable to the public. ~ Environmental Protection Agency
  • Bioremediation is a technology that uses microorganisms to treat contaminants through natural biodegradation mechanisms (intrinsic bioremediation) or by enhancing natural biodegradation mechanisms through the addition of microbes, nutrients, electron donors, and/or electron acceptors (enhanced bioremediation). This technology, performed in situ (below ground or in place) or ex situ (above ground), is capable of degrading organic compounds to less toxic materials such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and water through aerobic or anaerobic processes. Bioremediation is being used with increasing frequency to remediate contaminated media at hazardous waste sites because, compared with other remediation technologies, it often is less expensive and more acceptable to the public.
  • Bioremediation technologies use microorganisms to treat contaminants by degrading organic compounds to less toxic materials, such as CO2, methane, water, and inorganic salts. These technologies include intrinsic or enhanced bioremediation, which is the focus of this report, and can be performed in situ or ex situ under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. During enhanced bioremediation, amendments are typically added to the media to supplement biodegradation processes. Amendments include nutrients (such asnitrogen and phosphorus), electron donors (such as methanol or lactic acid for anaerobic processes), electron acceptors (such as oxygen for aerobic processes, ferric iron or nitrate for anaerobic processes), or microbes (bioaugmentation) (EPA 1994, EPA 2000).
  • [E]ntomoremediation as a novel concept was critically projected as a bioremediation technique that needs to be harnessed in line with global realities of involving organisms like microorganisms and earthworms in soil decontamination. Entomoremediation is defined as a type of remediation in which insects are used in order to decontaminate a degraded soil. The candidacy of collembolans, ants, beetles and termites in entomoremediation is advocated because of their role as ecosystem engineers. The need for mass rearing of the insects to be used in proposed bioremediation is discussed. Bioremediation as a measure that requires interdisciplinary approach is emphasized. The need to use insects that are neither threatened or endangered in entomoremediation in order to achieve overall healthy balance of the soil environment is stressed.

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