Dirac equation

relativistic quantum mechanical wave equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation defense by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928. In its free form, or including electromagnetic interactions, it describes all spin-½ massive particles, for which parity is a symmetry, such as electrons and quarks, and is consistent with both the principles of quantum mechanics and the theory of special relativity, and was the first theory to account fully for special relativity in the context of quantum mechanics.


  • There is one topic I was not sorry to skip: the relativistic wave equation of Dirac. It seems to me that the way this is usually presented in books on quantum mechanics is profoundly misleading. Dirac thought that his equation was a relativistic generalization of the non-relativistic time-dependent Schrödinger equation that governs the probability amplitude for a point particle in an external electromagnetic field. For some time after, it was considered to be a good thing that Dirac’s approach works only for particles of spin one half, in agreement with the known spin of the electron, and that it entails negative energy states, states that when empty can be identified with the electron’s antiparticle. Today we know that there are particles like the W± that are every bit as elementary as the electron, and that have distinct antiparticles, and yet have spin one, not spin one half. The right way to combine relativity and quantum mechanics is through the quantum theory of fields, in which the Dirac wave function appears as the matrix element of a quantum field between a one-particle state and the vacuum, and not as a probability amplitude.

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