Shah Alam II (1728–1806), also known as Ali Gauhar, was the eighteenth Mughal Emperor. A son of the murdered Alamgir II, he escaped to Allahabad in December 1759 and later successfully defended the throne from the traitorous Imad-ul-Mulk, who appointed Shah Jahan III as the emperor. Later, he was nominated as the emperor by his loyal ally Ahmad Shah Durrani after the Third Battle of Panipat.
The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II, was blinded in the year 1788, by the renegade eunuch Ghulam Qadir.
- Shah Alam II once remarked: "In reality, various kinds of unbecoming things do happen in my reign, and the people of God loudly say: In the reign of this blind king we suffer from atrocities'. How then do I desrve to be called a king".
- Shah Alam II once remarked: None could dare to see the combat either of the camels or of the elephants among the Hindu chiefs. The sole exception was made in the case of Raja Jai Singh Sawai, who was permitted by Mohammad Shah after taking from huge amount as tribute.
- "Bravery is better than magnanimity".
- S. M. Ikram (1964). "XIX. A Century of Political Decline: 1707-1803". in Ainslie T. Embree. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved on 2011-11-05.
- Siyar al-Muta'ahirīn