Help:Editing

This is a copy of the master help page at m:Help:Editing. Do not edit this page. Edits will be lost in the next update from the master page. Either edit the master help page for all projects at Meta, or edit the project-specific text at Template:Ph:Editing. You are welcome to copy the exact wikitext from the master page at Meta and paste it into this page at any time.


Editing overview

Starting a new page

  1. Page name

Referencing

  1. Links
  2. Piped links
  3. Interwiki linking
  4. Variables
  5. URLs
  6. Anchors

Formatting

  1. Formulas
  2. Lists
  3. Tables
  4. HTML in wikitext
  5. Image & File uploads
  6. Image page

Organizing

  1. Sections
  2. Templates
  3. Categories
  4. Redirects
  5. Namespaces
  6. Renaming (moving) a page

Fixing mistakes and vandalism

  1. Reverting edits
  2. Testing

Saving effort

  1. Editing shortcuts
  2. Editing toolbar
  3. Magic words

Communicating

  1. Edit summary
  2. Talk page
  3. Edit conflict
  4. Minor edit

Special characters

  1. Turkish characters
  2. Romanian characters

Extensions

  1. WikiHiero syntax — warning: lots of images! (for Egyptian hieroglyphs)
  2. EasyTimeline syntax

Frequently Asked Questions

This Editing Overview has a lot of wikitext examples. You may want to keep this page open in a separate browser window for reference while you edit.

Each of the topics covered here is covered somewhere else in more detail. Please look in the box on the right for the topic you are interested in.

Editing basicsEdit

Start editing
To start editing a MediaWiki page, click on the "Edit this page" (or just "edit") link at one of its edges. This will bring you to the edit page: a page with a text box containing the wikitext: the editable source code from which the server produces the webpage. If you just want to experiment, please do so in the sandbox, not here.
Summarize your changes
You should write a short edit summary in the small field below the edit-box. You may use shorthand to describe your changes, as described in the legend.
Preview before saving
When you have finished, press preview to see how your changes will look -- before you make them permanent. Repeat the edit/preview process until you are satisfied, then click "Save" and your changes will be immediately applied to the article.

Wikitext markup -- making your page look the way you wantEdit

This is page Help:Wikitext quick reference, transcluded in Help:Editing.

Basic text formattingEdit

What it looks like What you type

You can emphasize text by putting two apostrophes on each side. Three apostrophes will emphasize it strongly. Five apostrophes is even stronger.

You can ''emphasize text'' by putting two
apostrophes on each side. Three apostrophes
will emphasize it '''strongly'''. Five
apostrophes is '''''even stronger'''''.

A single newline has no effect on the layout.

But an empty line starts a new paragraph.

A single newline
has no effect
on the layout.

But an empty line
starts a new paragraph.

You can break lines
without starting a new paragraph.
Please use this sparingly.

You can break lines<br>
without starting a new paragraph.<br>
Please use this sparingly.

You should "sign" your comments on talk pages:

Three tildes gives your user name: Karl Wick
Four tildes give your user name plus date/time: Karl Wick 07:46, 27 November 2005 (UTC)
Five tildes gives the date/time alone: 07:46, 27 November 2005 (UTC)
You should "sign" your comments on talk pages:
: Three tildes gives your user name: ~~~
: Four tildes give your user name plus date/time: ~~~~
: Five tildes gives the date/time alone: ~~~~~

You can use HTML tags, too, if you want. Some useful ways to use HTML:

Put text in a typewriter font. The same font is generally used for computer code.

Strike out or underline text, or write it in small caps. If the wiki has the templates, this can be even easier to write.

Superscripts and subscripts: x2, x2

You can use <b>HTML tags</b>, too, if you
want. Some useful ways to use HTML:

Put text in a <tt>typewriter font</tt>.
The same font is generally used for
<code>computer code</code>.

<strike>Strike out</strike> or
<u>underline</u> text, or write it
<span style="font-variant:small-caps">
in small caps</span>.
If the wiki has the templates,
this can {{smallcaps|be even easier to write}}.

Superscripts and subscripts:
x<sup>2</sup>, x<sub>2</sub>

For a list of HTML tags that are allowed, see HTML in wikitext. However, you should avoid HTML in favor of Wiki markup whenever possible.

Organizing your writingEdit

What it looks like What you type

Section headings

Headings organize your writing into sections. The Wiki software can automatically generate a table of contents from them.


Subsection

Using more equals signs creates a subsection.


A smaller subsection

Don't skip levels, like from two to four equals signs. Start with two equals signs; don't use single equals signs.

== Section headings ==

Headings organize your writing into sections.
The Wiki software can automatically generate
a table of contents from them.

=== Subsection ===

Using more equals signs creates a subsection.

==== A smaller subsection ====

Don't skip levels, like from two to four equals signs.
Start with two equals signs; don't use single equals signs.
  • Unordered lists are easy to do:
    • Start every line with a star.
      • More stars indicate a deeper level.
  • A newline
  • in a list

marks the end of the list.

  • Of course you can start again.
* ''Unordered lists'' are easy to do:
** Start every line with a star.
*** More stars indicate a deeper level.
*A newline
*in a list  
marks the end of the list.
*Of course you can start again.
  1. Numbered lists are also good:
    1. Very organized
    2. Easy to follow

A newline marks the end of the list.

  1. New numbering starts with 1.
# Numbered lists are also good:
## Very organized
## Easy to follow
A newline marks the end of the list.
#New numbering starts with 1.
  • You can even do mixed lists
    1. and nest them
      • or break lines
        in lists.
* You can even do mixed lists
*# and nest them
*#* or break lines<br>in lists.

Another kind of list is a definition list:

word 
definition of the word
longer phrase
phrase defined
Another kind of list is a '''definition list''':
; word : definition of the word
; longer phrase 
: phrase defined
A colon indents a line or paragraph.

A newline after that starts a new paragraph.

This is often used for discussion on Talk pages.
:A colon indents a line or paragraph.
A newline after that starts a new paragraph.
::This is often used for discussion on talk pages.

You can make horizontal dividing lines to separate text.


But you should usually use sections instead, so that they go in the table of contents.

You can make horizontal dividing lines
to separate text.
----
But you should usually use sections instead,
so that they go in the table of contents.

LinksEdit

You will often want to make clickable links to other pages.

What it looks like What you type

Here's a link to a page named Official position. You can even say official positions and the link will show up right.

You can put formatting around a link. Example: Wikipedia.

The first letter will automatically be capitalized, so wikipedia goes to the same place as Wikipedia. Capitalization matters after the first letter.

The weather in London is a page that doesn't exist yet. You can create it by clicking on the link.

Here's a link to a page named [[Official position]].
You can even say [[official position]]s
and the link will show up right.

You can put formatting around a link.
Example: ''[[Wikipedia]]''.

The ''first letter'' will automatically be capitalized,
so [[wikipedia]] is the same as [[Wikipedia]].
Capitalization matters after the first letter.

[[The weather in London]] is a page that doesn't exist
yet. You can create it by clicking on the link.

You can link to a page section by its title:

  • List of cities by country#Morocco.
  • List of cities by country#Sealand.

If multiple sections have the same title, add a number. #Example section 3 goes to the third section named "Example section".

You can link to a page section by its title:

*[[List of cities by country#Morocco]].
*[[List of cities by country#Sealand]].

If multiple sections have the same title, add
a number. [[#Example section 3]] goes to the
third section named "Example section".

You can make a link point to a different place with a piped link. Put the link target first, then the pipe character "|", then the link text.

You can make a link point to a different place
with a [[Help:Piped link|piped link]]. Put the link
target first, then the pipe character "|", then
the link text.

*[[Help:Link|About Links]]
*[[List of cities by country#Morocco|
Cities in Morocco]]

You can make an external link just by typing a URL: http://www.nupedia.com

You can give it a title: Nupedia

Or leave the title blank: [1]

You can make an external link just by typing a URL:
http://www.nupedia.com

You can give it a title:
[http://www.nupedia.com Nupedia]

Or leave the title blank:
[http://www.nupedia.com]

You can redirect the user to another page with a special link. For example, you might want to redirect USA to United States.

#REDIRECT [[United States]]

Category links don't show up, but add the page to a category.

Add an extra colon to actually link to the category: Category:Wikiquote help

Category links don't show up, but add the page
to a category. [[Category:Category:Wikiquote help]]

Add an extra colon to actually link to the category:
[[:Category:Category:Wikiquote help]]

The Wiki reformats linked dates to match the reader's date preferences. These three dates will show up the same if you choose a format in your Preferences:

The Wiki reformats linked dates to match the reader's date
preferences. These three dates will show up the same if you
choose a format in your [[Special:Preferences|]]:
* [[July 20]], [[1969]]
* [[20 July]] [[1969]]
* [[1969]]-[[07-20]]

Just show what I typedEdit

A few different kinds of formatting will tell the Wiki to display things as you typed them.

What it looks like What you type
<nowiki> tags

The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''. It reformats text by removing newlines and multiple spaces. It still interprets special characters: →

<nowiki>
The nowiki tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It reformats text by removing newlines    and multiple spaces.
It still interprets special characters: &rarr;
</nowiki>
<pre> tags
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: →
<nowiki>
<pre>
The pre tag ignores [[Wiki]] ''markup''.
It also doesn't     reformat text.
It still interprets special characters: →
</nowiki>
Leading spaces

Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

Putting a space at the beginning of each line
stops the text   from being reformatted. It still
interprets Wiki markup and special
characters: →
Leading spaces are another way to preserve formatting.

 Putting a space at the beginning of each line
 stops the text   from being reformatted. It still
 interprets [[Wiki]] ''markup'' and special
 characters: &rarr;

Images, tables, video and soundsEdit

This is a very quick introduction. For more information, see:

What it looks like What you type

A picture, including alternate text:

The logo for this Wiki

You can put the image in a frame with a caption:

The logo for this Wiki
A picture, including alternate text:

[[Image:Wikiquote-logo-en.png|The logo for this Wiki]]

You can put the image in a frame with a caption:
[[Image:Wikiquote-logo-en.png|frame|The logo for this Wiki]]

A link to Wikipedia's page for the image: Image:Wikiquote-logo-en.png

Or a link directly to the image itself: Media:Wikiquote-logo-en.png

A link to Wikipedia's page for the image:
[[:Image:Wikiquote-logo-en.png]]

Or a link directly to the image itself:
[[Media:Wikiquote-logo-en.png]]

Use media: links to link to sounds or videos: A sound file

Use '''media:''' links to link to sounds
or videos: [[media:Sg_mrob.ogg|A sound file]]
This is
a table
<center>
{| border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=5
| This
| is
|- 
| a
| '''table'''
|}
</center>

Mathematical formulaeEdit

You can format mathematical formulae with TeX markup. See Help:Formula.

What it looks like What you type

\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}

<math>\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{x^n}{n!}</math>

TemplatesEdit

Templates are segments of Wiki markup that are meant to be copied automatically ("transcluded") into a page. You add them by putting the template's name in {{double braces}}.

Some templates take parameters, as well, which you separate with the pipe character.

What it looks like What you type

Template:Transclusion demo

{{Transclusion demo}}

This template takes two parameters, and creates underlined text with a hover box:

Hover your mouse over this text

This template takes two parameters, and creates
underlined text with a hover box:

{{H:title|This is the hover text|
Hover your mouse over this text}}

Tips and tricksEdit

Page protectionEdit

In a few cases, where an administrator has protected a page, the link labeled "Edit this page" is replaced by the text "View source" (or equivalents in the language of the project). In that case the page cannot be edited. Protection of an image page includes protection of the image itself.

Edit conflictsEdit

If someone else makes an edit while you are making yours, the result is an edit conflict. Many conflicts can be automatically resolved by the Wiki. If it can't be resolved, however, you will need to resolve it yourself. The Wiki gives you two text boxes, where the top one is the other person's edit and the bottom one is your edit. Merge your edits into the top edit box, which is the only one that will be saved.

RevertingEdit

The edit link of a page showing an old version leads to an edit page with the old wikitext. This is a useful way to restore the old version of a page. However, the edit link of a diff page gives the current wikitext, even if the diff page shows an old version below the table of differences.

Error messagesEdit

If you get an error message upon saving a page, you can't tell whether the actual save has failed or just the confirmation. You can go back and save again, and the second save will have no effect, or you can check "My contributions" to see whether the edit went through.

Checking spelling and editing in your favorite editorEdit

You may find it more convenient to copy and paste the text first into your favorite text editor, edit and spell check it there, and then paste it back into your web browser to preview. This way, you can also keep a local backup copy of the pages you have edited. It also allows you to make changes offline.

If you edit this way, it's best to leave the editing page open after you copy from it, using the same edit box to submit your changes, so that the usual edit conflict mechanism can deal with it. If you return to the editing page later, please make sure that nobody else has edited the page in the meantime. If someone has, you'll need to merge their edits into yours by using the diff feature in the page history.

Composition of the edit pageEdit

The editing page consists of these sections:

  • The edit toolbar (optional)
  • The editing text box
  • The edit summary box
  • Save/Preview/Cancel links
  • A list of templates used on the page
  • A preview, if you have requested one. Your preferences may place the preview at the top of the page instead.

Position-independent wikitextEdit

No matter where you put these things in the wikitext, the resulting page is displayed the same way:

Minor editsEdit

A logged-in user can mark an edit as "minor". Minor edits are generally spelling corrections, formatting, and minor rearrangement of text. Users may choose to hide minor edits when viewing Recent Changes.

Marking a significant change as a minor edit is considered bad Wikiquette. If you have accidentally marked an edit as minor, make a dummy edit, verify that the "[ ] This is a minor edit" check-box is unchecked, and explain in the edit summary that the previous edit was not minor.

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

Wikiquote-specific contentEdit

Links to other help pagesEdit

Help contents - all pages in the Help namespace: Meta b: c: n: w: q: wikisource wiktionary


Reading: Overview | Go | Search | URL | Namespace | Page name | Section | Link | Backlinks | Piped link | Interwiki link | Redirect | Variable | Category
Tracking changes: Recent | (enhanced) | Related | Watching pages | Page history | Diff | User contributions | Edit summary | Minor edit
Logging in and preferences: Logging in | Preferences | User style
Editing: Overview | New page | Images/files | Image description page | Special characters | Formula | Table | EasyTimeline | Template intro | Renaming (moving) a page | Automatic conversion of wikitext | Talk page | Testing | rlc
Projects: Meta (master page) | Wikibooks | Wikicommons | Wikinews | Wikipedia | Wikiquote | Wikisource | Wiktionary
For other languages see Meta.

Last modified on 8 April 2014, at 11:56